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Pascal

Pascal

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Published by nguyentuanhung93
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Published by: nguyentuanhung93 on Feb 27, 2011
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02/27/2011

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Pascal
    
Surprised or incredulous, members of the intellectual elite of Paris attend the exhibition of a strange machine,created by a 21 year-old youth. Nobody notices its reach: sothat a mechanism capable to do so many calculations? Centurieslater, the mill would be considered the calculating- first of themodern ones.
    
Blaise Pascal 
, the inventor of the calculating machine, wouldalso develop important studies of Mathematics and Physics, besidesleaving deep meditations on Philosophy and Christian Religion.  Born in 1623, Blaise Pascal interiorizou the dilemmas of itstime: the shock among the old medieval order, in that the influence of the Christian doctrine, and a new vision of the world prevailed, own of the emergent capitalist society, based on the development of thesciences (mathematics, physics, etc.) and of its application in thetechnology. On a side, the Church tried to preserve its authority on themen, reaffirming the need of the faith; from the other, the humanity discovered that it could walk without the divine help, being guided for by force of its reason. 
 
  
The Cientist 
 The scientific and rationalistic aspect of Pascal was revealedfrom the childhood. Instigated by the father, that, refusing to send theson to the school, took charge of his education, young Pascal rushed tothe investigation of any problem with that if he ran across. Restless andcurious, already to the 11 years, he accomplished experiences on thesounds, that resulted in a small agreement. It is also counted that, not satisfied with the paternal promisethat later he would receive lessons on mathematics, he developed for own initiative, the study of geometric illustrations. Thus, to the 12 years,he  got to deduce alone the first 32 positions  of the geometrestablished by Euclides. The processes in the study of the Mathematics were fast: nolonger he was to reproduce the one that the old specialists had done,but of doing new discoveries. To the 16 years, he wrote the " Rehearsalon the Conical " published in 1640, a work on the Profective Geometry inthat  investigated  the conical  ones  -  geometric  illustrations  whoseproperties don't lose temper when projected in several ways of a plan onanother one. After “La Pascaline's " construction - the machine of calculating-,  the  attention  of  Pascal  went  back  to  the  experiences  on  theatmospheric pressure accomplished by Torricelli. Second this cientist,the space that stayed on the column of mercury of a barometecorresponded to the vacuum; Pascal demonstrated that the assumed "vacuum " didn't pass of rarefied air. In that study, he also analyzed theproperties of the hydraulic pressure, enunciating a proposition that 
 
would be known as " law of Pascal "; the pressure exercised on the liquidin  a  shut  recipient  is  transmitted  by  all  the  directions,  with  nomodifyings.  
The Religious Crisis
 During that whole period, Pascal, as his contemporaries, hedirected his conduct according with the prescriptions of the CatholicChurch. This seemed to conform to at the new times, being showntolerant with the scientific investigations that, direct or indirectly, they refuted the extracted dogmas of the Bible. In that measured, theCatholicism of the generation of Pascal tended to be much more asimple habit than a true faith: the faith in God didn't have consequencesin the daily life. The theological current founded by Dutch Cornelius Jansen,even so, it considered such attitude a true corruption of the Christianity.Jansen affirmed that the philosophical reason was the " mother of all theheresies "; in other words, it condemned any free thought, I don'subject to the control of the Church. According to him, the man was not guided by its free will; it was predestined, and the salvation didn'depend on its actions, but, only, of the divine grace. In France, such current - known like Jansenism -, in spite of officially condemned by the Pope, it spread quickly, tends with maincenter difusor, the convent of Port-Royal. From there, the Frenchjansenists started to nail the solitary retreat and the scorn for thematerial and social life. Pascal would take contact with the jansenism in 1646, whenthe father, sick, became attended by two medical followers of the

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