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Automated Fault Location

Automated Fault Location

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Published by: mycatalysts on Feb 27, 2011
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03/07/2013

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PRESENTED
BYP.RAMAMOHAN T.MUNI PRAKASH
e-mail:ramamohan_208@yahoo.co.in e-mail:muniprakash_205 @yahoo.co.in
RAJIV GANDHI MEMORIAL COLLEGE OFENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
.
NANDYAL .
KURNOOL (DIST).
 
1
ABSTRACT
In this paper is presented a new method of AUTOMATED FAULT LOCATIONSYSTEM in PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS based on measurementsprovided by intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with built in oscillography functions,installed only at the substation level .This system can identify the most probable faultlocations in a fast and accurate way using a database that stores information about thenetwork topology and its electrical parameters.The method is based on an algorithm which combines the information aboutboth the fault type and load rejection for better estimation of fault location .Thisalgorithm is robust in nature and is also least influenced by errors in load distribution.This is because of the fact that magnitude of load current is much smaller than that of the fault current.This procedure excels the traditional ones which assume that measurementsfrom local terminals of the faulted distribution lines are available. It is a powerful toolto operate and maintain the distribution network efficiently and locate the faults veryfar from the substation.When the fault resistance is greater, the error in estimation of the fault rises to ahigher level. Apart of my contribution : a novel approach is proposed to minimize theerror in such cases. The approach increases the accuracy of estimation and alsoimproves the stability of the system.
INTRODUCTION :-
A Power system is said to be well designed if it gives a good quality andreliable supply. Good quality means maintaining flat voltage profile. Reliable supplymeans having stability. The reliability of a system is affected because of short circuitfault occurrences which represent one of the most extreme conditions of the power systems. The causes of the faults must be determined and eliminated. The process canbe expedited only if fault location can be determined quickly and reliably. Since thederegulation process has started , most of the research on power distribution systemsis focused on delivering power in an efficient way , i.e. ,in terms of quality , reliabilityand end user price.
PROBLEM DEFINED:-
An accurate estimation of fault location in power systems presents achallenging task. Several authors have researched on this topic and have proposedvaluable methods. Most of the proposed methods assume that measurements from thelocal terminals of faulted line are available. As most of the power systems areequipped by sparsely located instrumentation, the number of measured quantities israther small. The problem is compounded by the presence of measuring noise.Despite the advances and wide spread use of intelligent electronic devices andneed for performance improvements, the fault location process employed now-a-days
 
2is still based on trouble calls from the affected customers. Besides, when a transientfault occurs, the operation centre will not receive any phone call and prevention of these transient faults from becoming permanent ones is difficult.
FAULTLOCATION ALGORITHMS IN VOGUE :-
Most of the proposed fault location algorithms were developed for powetransmission systems. A few methods were proposed for distribution networks due tothe following reasons:-i. Variety of conductors and structuresii. Lateral branchesiii. Load distributed along the feeder iv. Modifications in feeder configurationsMost of the proposed algorithms are based on fault detectors installed along thefeeders and can only be applied to balanced networks. As a result, these methods willestimate a fault location far from the actual one.
AUTOMATED FAULT LOCATION SYSTEM:-
The automated fault location system proposed in this paper combinesinformation provided by IEDs located only at the substations with knowledge of thedistribution system’s topology and its electrical parameters. Whenever an over currentevent occurs, the system automatically provides the most probable fault locations totheoperators, at the operation center.Let us examine the substation arrangement depicted in fig.1. An IED, connectedto each medium-voltage feeder, is responsible for monitoring voltage and currentsignals .It also records transient data whenever an over current event occurs.A computer, located at the substation, is connected to the array of IEDs and tothe computer at the operation centre via a communication channel such as dial phoneline, dedicated line, radio link, and tie to corporate local area network (LAN).This fault location system consists of eight software modules. These softwaremodularities enable future software upgrades with out the need for changing thewhole system. A part of these modules is installed at the substations whereas the restare installed at the operation centre as illustrated in fig.2. The decision of installing

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