Problem 11.Problem 13.Problem 14.
(b) Although the planetary model of the atom can be made to workwith any value for the radius of the electrons’ orbits, more advancedmodels that we will study later in this course predict deﬁnite radii.If the electron is imagined as circling around the proton at a speedof 2.2
m/s, in an orbit with a radius of 0.05 nm, what electriccurrent is created?
We have referred to resistors
heat, i.e. we haveassumed that
is always greater than zero. Could
come out to be negative for a resistor? If so, could one make arefrigerator by hooking up a resistor in such a way that it absorbedheat instead of dissipating it?
You are given a battery, a ﬂashlight bulb, and a single pieceof wire. Draw at least two conﬁgurations of these items that wouldresult in lighting up the bulb, and at least two that would not lightit. (Don’t draw schematics.) If you’re not sure what’s going on,borrow the materials from your instructor and try it. Note that thebulb has two electrical contacts: one is the threaded metal jacket,and the other is the tip (at the bottom in the ﬁgure). [Problem byArnold Arons.]
In a wire carrying a current of 1.0 pA, how long do you haveto wait, on the average, for the next electron to pass a given point?Express your answer in units of microseconds.
Solution, p. 204
The ﬁgure shows a simpliﬁed diagram of an electron gun suchas the one used in the Thomson experiment, or the one that cre-ates the electron beam in a TV tube. Electrons that spontaneouslyemerge from the negative electrode (cathode) are then acceleratedto the positive electrode, which has a hole in it. (Once they emergethrough the hole, they will slow down. However, if the two electrodesare fairly close together, this slowing down is a small eﬀect, becausethe attractive and repulsive forces experienced by the electron tendto cancel.) (a) If the voltage diﬀerence between the electrodes is∆V, what is the velocity of an electron as it emerges at B? (Assumeits initial velocity, at A, is negiligible.) (b) Evaluate your expres-sion numerically for the case where ∆
=10 kV, and compare to thespeed of light.
Solution, p. 205
The ﬁgure shows a simpliﬁed diagram of a device called atandem accelerator, used for accelerating beams of ions up to speedson the order of 1% of the speed of light. The nuclei of these ions col-lide with the nuclei of atoms in a target, producing nuclear reactionsfor experiments studying the structure of nuclei. The outer shell of the accelerator is a conductor at zero voltage (i.e., the same voltageas the Earth). The electrode at the center, known as the “terminal,”is at a high positive voltage, perhaps millions of volts. Negative ionswith a charge of
1 unit (i.e., atoms with one extra electron) areproduced oﬀstage on the right, typically by chemical reactions with