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Circuits, Part 2

Circuits, Part 2

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Published by imad rehman
Circuits, Part 2
Circuits, Part 2

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Published by: imad rehman on Feb 27, 2011
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Problem 3.
A computerized answer check is available online.
A problem that requires calculus.
A difficult problem.
A resistor has a voltage difference ∆
across it, causing acurrent
to flow.(a) Find an equation for the power it dissipates as heat in terms of the variables
only, eliminating ∆
(b) If an electrical line coming to your house is to carry a givenamount of current, interpret your equation from part a to explainwhether the wire’s resistance should be small, or large.
(a) Express the power dissipated by a resistor in terms of 
and ∆
only, eliminating
(b) Electrical receptacles in your home are mostly 110 V, but cir-cuits for electric stoves, air conditioners, and washers and driers areusually 220 V. The two types of circuits have differently shaped re-ceptacles. Suppose you rewire the plug of a drier so that it can beplugged in to a 110 V receptacle. The resistor that forms the heat-ing element of the drier would normally draw 200 W. How muchpower does it actually draw now?
As discussed in the text, when a conductor reaches an equi-librium where its charge is at rest, there is always zero electric forceon a charge in its interior, and any excess charge concentrates itself on the surface. The surface layer of charge arranges itself so as toproduce zero total force at any point in the interior. (Otherwise thefree charge in the interior could not be at rest.) Suppose you havea teardrop-shaped conductor like the one shown in the figure. Sincethe teardrop is a conductor, there are free charges everywhere insideit, but consider a free charged particle at the location shown witha white circle. Explain why, in order to produce zero force on thisparticle, the surface layer of charge must be denser in the pointedpart of the teardrop. (Similar reasoning shows why lightning rodsare made with points. The charged stormclouds induce positive andnegative charges to move to opposite ends of the rod. At the pointedupper end of the rod, the charge tends to concentrate at the point,and this charge attracts the lightning.)
Use the result of problem 3 on page 39 to find an equation forthe voltage at a point in space at a distance
from a point charge
. (Take your
= 0 distance to be anywhere you like.)
Problem 5.Problem 6.
Referring back to problem 6 on page 40 about the sodium chlo-ride crystal, suppose the lithium ion is going to jump from the gap itis occupying to one of the four closest neighboring gaps. Which onewill it jump to, and if it starts from rest, how fast will it be goingby the time it gets there? (It will keep on moving and acceleratingafter that, but that does not concern us.) [Hint: The approach issimilar to the one used for the other problem, but you want to workwith voltage and potential energy rather than force.]
Referring back to our old friend the neuron from problem1 on page 39, let’s now consider what happens when the nerve isstimulated to transmit information. When the blob at the top (thecell body) is stimulated, it causes Na
ions to rush into the top of the tail (axon). This electrical pulse will then travel down the axon,like a flame burning down from the end of a fuse, with the Na
ionsat each point first going out and then coming back in. If 10
ions cross the cell membrane in 0.5 ms, what amount of current iscreated?
If a typical light bulb draws about 900 mA from a 110-Vhousehold circuit, what is its resistance? (Don’t worry about thefact that it’s alternating current.)
Today, even a big luxury car like a Cadillac can have anelectrical system that is relatively low in power, since it doesn’tneed to do much more than run headlights, power windows, etc.In the near future, however, manufacturers plan to start makingcars with electrical systems about five times more powerful. Thiswill allow certain energy-wasting parts like the water pump to berun on electrical motors and turned off when they’re not needed currently they’re run directly on shafts from the motor, so theycan’t be shut off. It may even be possible to make an engine thatcan shut off at a stoplight and then turn back on again withoutcranking, since the valves can be electrically powered. Current cars’electrical systems have 12-volt batteries (with 14-volt chargers), butthe new systems will have 36-volt batteries (with 42-volt chargers).(a) Suppose the battery in a new car is used to run a device thatrequires the same amount of power as the corresponding device inthe old car. Based on the sample figures above, how would thecurrents handled by the wires in one of the new cars compare withthe currents in the old ones?(b) The real purpose of the greater voltage is to handle devices thatneed
power. Can you guess why they decided to change to 36-volt batteries rather than increasing the power without increasingthe voltage?
(a) You take an LP record out of its sleeve, and it acquires astatic charge of 1 nC. You play it at the normal speed of 33
r.p.m.,and the charge moving in a circle creates an electric current. Whatis the current, in amperes?
Chapter 3 Circuits, Part 1
Problem 11.Problem 13.Problem 14.
(b) Although the planetary model of the atom can be made to workwith any value for the radius of the electrons’ orbits, more advancedmodels that we will study later in this course predict definite radii.If the electron is imagined as circling around the proton at a speedof 2.2
m/s, in an orbit with a radius of 0.05 nm, what electriccurrent is created?
We have referred to resistors
heat, i.e. we haveassumed that
is always greater than zero. Could
come out to be negative for a resistor? If so, could one make arefrigerator by hooking up a resistor in such a way that it absorbedheat instead of dissipating it?
You are given a battery, a flashlight bulb, and a single pieceof wire. Draw at least two configurations of these items that wouldresult in lighting up the bulb, and at least two that would not lightit. (Don’t draw schematics.) If you’re not sure what’s going on,borrow the materials from your instructor and try it. Note that thebulb has two electrical contacts: one is the threaded metal jacket,and the other is the tip (at the bottom in the figure). [Problem byArnold Arons.]
In a wire carrying a current of 1.0 pA, how long do you haveto wait, on the average, for the next electron to pass a given point?Express your answer in units of microseconds.
Solution, p. 204
The figure shows a simplified diagram of an electron gun suchas the one used in the Thomson experiment, or the one that cre-ates the electron beam in a TV tube. Electrons that spontaneouslyemerge from the negative electrode (cathode) are then acceleratedto the positive electrode, which has a hole in it. (Once they emergethrough the hole, they will slow down. However, if the two electrodesare fairly close together, this slowing down is a small effect, becausethe attractive and repulsive forces experienced by the electron tendto cancel.) (a) If the voltage difference between the electrodes is∆V, what is the velocity of an electron as it emerges at B? (Assumeits initial velocity, at A, is negiligible.) (b) Evaluate your expres-sion numerically for the case where ∆
=10 kV, and compare to thespeed of light.
Solution, p. 205
The figure shows a simplified diagram of a device called atandem accelerator, used for accelerating beams of ions up to speedson the order of 1% of the speed of light. The nuclei of these ions col-lide with the nuclei of atoms in a target, producing nuclear reactionsfor experiments studying the structure of nuclei. The outer shell of the accelerator is a conductor at zero voltage (i.e., the same voltageas the Earth). The electrode at the center, known as the “terminal,”is at a high positive voltage, perhaps millions of volts. Negative ionswith a charge of 
1 unit (i.e., atoms with one extra electron) areproduced offstage on the right, typically by chemical reactions with

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