The process of reducing the demand for a product or decreasing consumption is known as
Marketing aimed at limiting market growth; for example, some governments practice de-marketing to conserve natural resources and organizations use a de-marketing approach whenthere is so much demand that that are unable to serve the needs of all potential customersadequately.
Efforts aimed at discouraging (not destroying) thedemandfor aproductwhich (1)
afirmcannotsupplyin large-enoughquantities, or (2) does notwantto supply in a
certainregionwhere thehighcostsof distributionor promotionallow only a too littleprofit
margin.Commonde-marketingstrategiesinclude higher prices, scaled-downadvertising, and
product redesign.Marketers attempt to reduce the demand for a product when the demand for the product is greater than the manufacturer's ability to produce it. De-marketing strategies involve raising prices,reducing advertising or promotion activities, or eliminating product benefits. De-marketing doesnot aim to destroy the demand but only to lower it to make it level with the ability to produce theproduct.Marketers sometimes practice selective de-marketing, which attempts to lower the demand for aproduct in a particular market, usually where one market is less profitable than other markets for the product. This is often done where the cost to manufacture, advertise, or promote the productis greater in one market than in other markets.Governments in many countries are experimenting with alternative methods for reducing car use,including congestion charges, increased fuel taxation, and improved public transport. This paper raises another possibility. Not only could public transport be marketed as an alternative to theprivate car, but through targeted propaganda, the automobile could be
as a statussymbol and a convenient accessory of modern life. In contrast with other public informationcampaigns, de-marketing would focus on people's self-image rather than their sense of publicduty.The authors draw on established theory in putting forward alternative themes aimed at particular categories of user and particular categories of journey, and briefly consider the strengths andweaknesses of each approach. Peer group pressure could be an important factor in helping to