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BASIC PHARMACOKINETICS-Ch2: Mathematics Review

BASIC PHARMACOKINETICS-Ch2: Mathematics Review

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 Basic Pharmacokinetics REV. 00.1.
2-1
Copyright © 1996-2000 Michael C. Makoid All Rights Reservedhttp://pharmacy.creighton.edu/pha443/pdf/ 
CHAPTER 2
Mathematics Review
 Author: Michael Makoid, Phillip Vuchetich and John Cobby Reviewer: Phillip Vuchetich
 B
 ASIC 
 ATHEMATICAL
 
SKILLS
 
OBJECTIVES
1.Given a data set containing a pair of variables, the student will properly construct(III) various graphs of the data.2.Given various graphical representations of data, the student will calculate (III) theslope and intercept by hand as well as using linear regression.3.The student shall be able to interpret (V) the meaning of the slope and interceptfor the various types of data sets.4.The student shall demonstrate (III) the proper procedures of mathematical andalgebraic manipulations.5.The student shall demonstrate (III) the proper calculus procedures of integrationand differentiation.6.The student shall demonstrate (III) the proper use of computers in graphical simu-lations and problem solving.7.Given information regarding the drug and the pharmacokinetic assumptions forthe model, the student will construct (III) models and develop (V) equations of theADME processes using LaPlace Transforms.8.The student will interpret (IV) a given model mathematically.9.The student will predict (IV) changes in the final result based on changes in vari-ables throughout the model.10.The student will correlate (V) the graphs of the data with the equations and mod-els so generated.
 
Mathematics Review
 Basic Pharmacokinetics REV. 00.1.
2-2
Copyright © 1996-2000 Michael C. Makoid All Rights Reservedhttp://pharmacy.creighton.edu/pha443/pdf/ 
2.1 Concepts of Mathematics
Pharmacokinetcs is a challenging field involving the application of mathematicalconcepts to real situations involving the absorbtion, distribution, metabolism andexcretion of drugs in the body. In order to be successful with pharmacokinetics, acertain amount of mathematical knowledge is essential.
This is just a review.Look it over. You shouldbe able to do all of thesemanipulations.
This chapter is meant to review the concepts in mathematics essential for under-standing kinetics. These concepts are generally taught in other mathematicalcourses from algebra through calculus. For this reason, this chapter is presented asa review rather than new material. For a more thorough discussion of any particu-lar concept, refer to a college algebra or calculus text.Included in this section are discussions of algebraic concepts, integration/differen-tiation, graphical analysis, linear regression, non-linear regression and the LaPlacetransform. Pk Solutions is the computer program used in this course.
Something new -LaPlace transforms.Useful tool.
A critical concept introduced in this chapter is the LaPlace transform. The LaPlacetransform is used to quickly solve (integrate) ordinary, linear differential equa-tions.
The Scientist 
by Micromath Scientific Software, Inc.
1
is available for work-ing with the LaPlace transform for problems throughout the book.
1.MicroMath Scientific Software, Inc., P.O. Box 21550, Salt Lake City, UT 84121-0550,
 
Mathematics Review
 Basic Pharmacokinetics REV. 00.1.
2-3
Copyright © 1996-2000 Michael C. Makoid All Rights Reservedhttp://pharmacy.creighton.edu/pha443/pdf/ 
2.2 Mathematical Preparation
2.2.1ZERO AND INFINITY
Any number multiplied by zero equals zero. Any number multiplied by infinityequals infinity. Any number divided by zero is mathematically undefined.Any number divided by infinity is mathematically undefined.
2.2.2EXPRESSING LARGE AND SMALL NUMBERS
Large or small numbers can be expressed in a more compact way using indices.
How Does ScientificNotation Work?
Examples:316000 becomes0.00708 becomesIn general a number takes the form:Where
A
is a value between 1 and 10, and
n
is a positive or negative integerThe value of the integer n is the number of places that the decimal point must bemoved to place it immediately to the right of the first non-zero digit. If the decimalpoint has to be moved to its left then n is a positive integer; if to its right, n is anegative integer.
Because this notation (sometimes referred to as “Scientific Notation”) uses indi-ces, mathematical operations performed on numbers expressed in this way are sub- ject to all the rules of indices; for these rules see Section 2.2.4.A shorthand notation (
A
E
n
) may be used, especially in scientific papers. This maybe interpreted as , as in the following example:2.28E4 =
( )
3.1610
5
×
7.08
3
×
10
 A
10
n
×
 A
10
n
×
2.28
4
×
1022800
=

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