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Zaza AleqsiZe - McxeTis Jvari _ Mcveli Yovlisa QarTlisa

Zaza AleqsiZe - McxeTis Jvari _ Mcveli Yovlisa QarTlisa

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Published by: zdevdariani on Mar 01, 2011
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zaza aleqsiZemcxeTis jvari _ mcveli yovlisaqarTlisa
mcxeTis jvarma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina ara mxolod saqarTvelosTvis,aramed mTlianad amier-kavkasiisaTvis. jvris tipis nagebobebi kavkasiaSi arsebiTad VIIsaukuneSi Sendeboda, saeklesio ganxeTqilebis UuSualod win, mis dros da Semdeg. mcxe- Tis jvari saeklesio ganxeTqilebis procesis cocxali monawile iyo. amitom SeiZina manqalkedonuri mrwamsis simbolos funqcia; amitom Sendeba intensiurad jvris tipis taZrebisomxeTSic mxolod meSvide saukunis Sua xanebSi, rodesac aqac diofizitobam gaimarjva;amitom aris, rom gviani reminiscenciebi saqarTveloSi ki gvxvdeba, magram somxeTSi,romelic monofizitobas daubrunda, sruliad aRar moipoveba.qarTul samecniero literaturaSi damkvidrebulia Tvalsazrisi, rom mcxeTis jvariaSenebulia 586-605 wlebSi, xolo amis momdevno xanis jvris tipis qarTuli (magaliTad,atenis sioni) da somxuri Zeglebi (magaliTad, rifsimes taZari somxeTSi) agebulia amisSemdeg da misi gaTvaliswinebiT. amitom uwoda g. CubinaSvilma aseTi arqiteqturismqone taZrebs `jvris tipis~ Zeglebi
1
.gasuli saukunis bolo ocdaaTi wlis manZilze es debuleba bevrjer gaxades sadavodsomexma mecnierebma. yvela SemTxvevaSi maTi mTavari amocana iyo moeZebnaT iseTidokumentebi, romelTa mixedviTac mcxeTis jvris mSenebloba damTavrda rifsimes (618 w.)an mrenis taZrebis (639/40 w.) agebis Semdeg. Sesabamisad somexi mecnierebi jvristipis Zeglebs `rifsimes tipis~ taZrebs uwodeben
2
.ra Tqma unda, saxels romelime movlenas mecnieri, an mecnierTa jgufi, rogorc sursise Searqmevs, magram dros gauZlebs mxolod iseTi saxeli, romelic movlenis Sinaganarssac zustad asaxavs da istoriasac angariSs uwevs.mcxeTis jvars, ueWvelia, aseTi saxeli Seerqva imis gamo, rom igi aSenda wm. ninosmier aRmarTuli jvris adgilas, magram g. CubinaSvilis mier Serqmeuli arqiteqturuli tipissaxelwodebac araCveulebrivi sizustiT daemTxva istoriul faqts: igi jvris adgilasac arisaRmarTuli da arqiteqturuladac jvars warmoadgens. aseT organul Serwymaze pretenziasomxeTis arcerT Zegls ar SeiZleba hqondes. aseve, amier-kavkasiis da miT ufro somxeTisarcerTi am tipis Zegli ar gamxdara, da verc gaxdeboda, qalkedonitobis simbolo.“moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs” mixedviT, mcxeTis jvris Senebas safuZveli daudo guaramkuropalatma da daamTavra misma Svilma stefanozma.
3
juanSeris cnobiT mcxeTis jvariaago stefanozis Zmam demetrem stefanozis erismTavrobisas, ramdenime wliT adre,sanam herakle moklavda foka keisars da TviTon dajdeboda bizantiis taxtze _ anu 610wlamde
4
.“epistoleTa wignigviCvenebs, rom qarTvel-somexTa saeklesio ganxeTqilebisdasawyisSi, 605/6 wlis zamTarSi qarTlis erismTavaria stefanozis Ze adarnase da arastefanozi
5
. amitom “moqcevaÁs” da juanSeris cnobebis mixedviT, mcxeTis jvari am welzeadre unda agebuliyo. swored ase, 585/6-604/5 wlebiT aTariRebs jvris aSenebas iv.
1
Г. Чубинашвили, Памятники типа Джвари, Тб., 1948.
2
А. Еремян, Храм Рипсиме, приложение: Памятники типа Рипсиме, Ер., 1955,
gv.
91-105;
t. maruTiani am tipisZeglebs “avan-rifsimes tipis” taZrebs uwodebs. ix. D7 Marov;3an5 Awani DaJaru &hamanmanhov,ar2nnyr5 Yr7 1976, gv. 150-158.
3
Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, I, Tb. 1964, gv. 95
4
 
qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955,gv. 223.
5
 
epistoleTa wigni, somxuri teqsti qarTuli TargmaniT, gamokvleviTa da komentarebiT gamosca z.aleqsiZem, Tb., 1968 gv. 35, 40, 72, 76, 83.
 
 javaxiSvili da masTan erTad
 
g. CubinaSvilic
6
. magram es msjeloba mainc damyarebulianaratiuli wyaroebis monacemebze da sxvadasxvagvari interpretaciis safuZvels iZleva.vnaxoT dokumenturi monacemebi.abraam somexTa kaTalikosi Tavis pirvel epistoleSi (608 wlis aRdgomis win) kironqarTlis kaTalikoss swers Semdegs: [qarTvelebi da somxebi] “aqedan mcxeTis
 jvarSi
modiodnen [salocavad] da mandedan wminda kaTolikeSi”-o
7
.Zveli somxuri enis gramatika sxva arafris daSvebis uflebas ar iZleva, Tu ara imisa,rom “jvarSi” da “kaTolikeSi” igulisxmeba eklesiebSi Sesvla. somxurad aseTi fraza gvaqvs:Asdi i M/qi;a3 i Qa[ calow... “jvarSi” (i Qa[) gramatikulad zustad im formiT arisgadmocemuli rogorc “mcxeTaSi” (i M/qi;a3).aseTive viTareba gvaqvs kiron qarTlis kaTalikosis sapasuxo epistoleSi abraamsomexTa kaTalikosisadmi: aznaurebi somxeTidan mcxeTis wminda jvarSi (i sovrpQa[ M/qi;a3) modiodnen salocavad da sjuls eziarebodneno”
8
. Tavis enciklikur epistoleSi abraam somexTa kaTalikosi wers: “sruliad ar eziaroT maT...arc salocavad wasvliT jvarSi, romelic mcxeTis midamoebSia ganTqmuli”
9
.gvaqvs ufro zusti cnobac. imave 608 wlis aRdgomis win, kiron qarTlis kaTalikossepistoles ugzavnis smbat bagratunic, vrkanis marzpani da iranis jarebis sardali, sadacukve pirdapir aris naTqvami: Cven Soris mtrobas agdebT iqamde, rom “Cven aqedandavabrkoloT, visac mand mosvla da wminda jvris Tayvaniscema unda, [xolo] Cven arSemovuSvaT isini, vinc wm. kaTolikeSi modiano”
.ar unda vifiqroT, TiTqos werilebis avtorebi arasakmarisad dakvirvebulni arian dagramatikulad erTmaneTSi ureven jvarSi (taZarSi) Sesvlas da jvarTan miaxlebas. qarTliskaTalikosi werils rom wers smbat bagratunis im periodis Sesaxeb, rodesac wm. ninos jvari jer kidev ar iqneboda taZarSi moqceuli, is sul sxva gramatikul formebs iyenebs. igilaparakobs mcxeTis jvarTan (a-) mosvlaze, mis winaSe (a-a]i) aRzrdaze
.cxadia, mcxeTis jvari, “epitoleTa wigniT”, 608 wlis gazafxulze ufro adrea aSenebuli. Tavis droze “moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs qronikis” erTi adgili me ase Sevaswore:“da meTerTmetÀ mefobda
daCi
uJarmeli da kaTalikozi iyo samoel. da missa zeqalaqsa tfiliss kacni dasxdes da [mcxeTas]
mariam-wmidaÁ
eklesiaRaSÀnes. dakaTalikozi iyo petre mesamÀ”
.es ambavi VI saukunis Sua xanebSi xdeba, amitom, Tu ki aRdgena sworia, saqmeunda gvqondes mcxeTis jvris mcire eklesiasTan.magram sinur xelnawerSi gvaqvs pirdapiri miTiTebac, rom mcxeTis jvariRvTismSoblis saxelobisa iyo: VIII s-is I naxevarSi adarnase erismTavris gardacvalebidanmeoce wlisTavze ianvris 20-s aResrula misi da, dedofali latavri,
«
da daefla juars,
mariam-wmidas
, ZiT da asulis wuliTurT~.
  Tavdapirvelad vvaraudobdi, rom am SemTxvevaSic laparaki unda yofiliyo mcxeTis jvris mcire taZarze, romelic marTlac gamoyenebuli iyo saZvaled, magram baton d. TumaniSvilTan saubarma damarwmuna, rom Tavisuflad SeiZleba TviTon jvris didi taZaricRvTismSoblis saxelze yofiliyo agebuli. aseTi varaudi ufro gamarTlebuli Cans, vinaidan arviciT, e.w. mcxeTis jvris mcire taZari moixsenieboda Tu ara martivad «jvris» saxelwodebiT.
6
 
iv. javaxiSvili, axlad aRmoCenili uZvelesi qarTuli xelTnawerebi, tf. univesitetis moambe, II, 1922-1923, gv. 325-332;
Г. Чубинашвили, Памятники,
gv
. 23.
7
 
epistoleTa wigni, gv. 66.
8
 
iqve, gv. 89.
9
 
iqve, gv. 121.
10
 
iqve, gv. 75.
11
 
z. aleqsiZe, atenis sionis somxuri warwerebi, Tb., 1978, gv. 76-77, sqolio 3.
12
 
uZvelesi cnoba bagrationebis Sesaxeb, anamki, Tb., 2002, gv. 33.
13
Le nouveau manuscript Géorgien sinaïtique N50, Edition en fac-similé, Introduction par Z. Aleksidzé: Corpus ScriptorumChristianorum Orietalium, Lovanii, 2001, p. 254 ;
z. aleqsiZe, uZvelesi cnoba bagrationebis Sesaxeb,anamki, gv. 25.
 
is ki namdvilad viciT, rom aseTi saxeli ewodeboda VII s-is damdegs agebul taZars. yovelSemTxvevaSi, jvris mcire taZris arsebobis dros «epistoleTa wignSi» daculi mimoweramxolod jvarSi misvlis, jvarTan miaxlebisa da jvris winaSe aRzrdis Sesaxeb laparakobs. Tu sveticxoveli qarTvel mefeTa saZvale iyo, mcxeTis jvari, rogorc Cans, iyogansasvenebeli «mefeTa saydarsa zeda msxdom
qarTlis erismTavrebisa VI-VIIsaukuneebSi mainc. sinas mTaze, wm. ekaterines monasterSi aRmoCenil X s-is I naxevrisxelnawer krebulSi, romelic Seicavs «moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs» uZveles redaqcias da, aseve,«asurel mamaTa cxovrebiCvenamde moRweulTagan uZveles redaqcias, sxvaCanarTebTan erTad, vkiTxulobT Semdegs:`odes gardaicvala kurTxeuli da didebuli mamfali adarnerse, ZÀ stefanozisi, Zmiswulidemetrisi, Ziswuli didisa guaramisi da meoce welsa gardaicvala kurTxeuli meuRle misiguaramavri, dekenbersa 2-s. da TTuesa ianvarsa 20-s gardaicvala kurTxeuli dedufalilatavri, asuli stefanozisi, daÁ adarnersÀsi, dedaÁ bagratunianisaÁ da kuropalatianisaÁ, dadaefla juars, mariam-wmidas, ZiT da asulis wuliTurT~
.cxadia, es cnoba modis qarTlis erismTavarTa saojaxo qronikidan an epitafiebidan.vinaidan Canaweri gakeTebulia bolo micvalebulisaTvis, qronikaSi miTiTebulia mxolod misi,misi vaJiSvilisa da qaliSvilis mxridan SviliSvilis dakrZalvis adgili. didi guaramis, stefanozis,demetris, adarnerses da misi meuRlis guaramavris dakrZalvis adgilis Sesaxeb araferi araris naTqvami, Tumca mcxeTis jvris reliefebi warwerebiT (gamosaxulni arian stefanozi,demetri, adarnerse) da stela (warwera gakeTebulia stefanozis, demetrisa da adarnersessulisa da xorcis meoxebisaTvis) jvris agebis istoriasTan erTad (wyaroebis mixedviT,safuZveli daudo guaramma, daamTavres stefanozma da demetrem) unda mowmobdes,rom esenic aq arian dakrZalulni, garda guaram erismTavrisa, romelic jvrisdamTavrebamde gardaicvala.erismTavar adarnerses mWidro kontaqti mcxeTis jvarTan, reliefebisa da warwerebisgarda, dadasturebulia sinuri xelnaweris (
 N/Sin-50
) CanarTSic, romelSic aRwerilia jvrismonastris saganZuri. aq inaxeboda «sakurTxevlis samoseli oqroqsovili adarnersÀsdadebuli da sxuaÁ friadi”.sinuri xelnaweris CanarTi gvawvdis unikalur cnobas: im droidan, rodesac latavridedofalma gaarTiana bagrationTa da qarTlis erismTavarTa (kuropalatianTa) sagvareuloebi,mcxeTis jvari gaxda bagratovanTa gansasvenebelic, sanam isini mefed ekurTxebodnen.mcxeTis jvari, safiqrebelia, jer qarTlis erismTavarTa, xolo Semdeg samefo eklesia-monasteri iyo. yvela sxva funqciasTan erTad, igi mniSvnelovani saganmanaTleblo keraciyo. amas mowmobs imave sinur krebulSi moTavsebuli sxva CanarTi, romelic aRwers jvrissaganZursa da biblioTekas:`iadgarni (sia _ z. a.) wignTa juarisTaÁ: beWdul[n]i
kb
(22) da sxuaÁ wigni
(20),oTxi Tavi
g
(3), pavlÀ
g
(3), grigoli
a
(1), ninoÁsi
a
(1), saxarebaÁ oqro-wylisaÁ
a
(1),ezoni juarisani garemo
d
(4), sakurTxevlis samoseli oqroqsovili adarnersÀs
 
dadebuli dasxuaÁ friadi~
.rogorc vxedavT, jvris monasterSi inaxeboda 22 "beWduli" wigni, da 20 `sxua~ wigni.`beWduli~ wignebi, bibliis wignebTan erTad, unda gulisxmobdes saeklesio kanonebs:mociqulTa, Svidi msoflio krebis, umniSvnelovanes adgilobriv krebaTa da saeklesiomamaTa. ruis-urbnisis ZeglisweraSi CamoTvlil kanonebs miwerili aqvs Semdegi daskvna:`ese arian Sekrebani wmidaTa saeklesio kanonTani,
dabeWdulni da damarxulni, TÂnier  yovlisa Sematebisa da moklebisa da
amaTi mecnierebaÁ da Sedgomda mtkicedpyrobaÁ uÃms yovelTa winamZRuarTa qristeanobiTisa madideblobisaTa mRdelT-mTavarTa,da mRvdelTa da diakonTa, da Cuen Soris moZRurad saxeldebulTa maTca monazonTa daerTbamad yovelsa savsebasa marTlmadidebelTa eklesiisasa~
.
14
il. abulaZe, asurel moRvaweTa cxovrebis wignTa Zveli redaqciebi, Tb. 1955, gv. 203.
15
Le nouveau manuscript Géorgien sinaïtique N50, p. 254.
16
Le nouveau manuscript Géorgien sinaïtique N50, p. 251.
17
 
ZeglisweraÁ ruis-urbnisis krebisaÁ, qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, III, teqstebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi

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