Under most circumstances, blood flow can be modeledby the Navier-Stokes equations. Whole blood can oftenbe assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid.However, this assumption fails when considering flowswithin arterioles.
t this scale, the effects of individualred blood cells becomes significant, and whole blood canno longer be modeled as a continuum. When thediameter of the blood vessel is slightly larger than thediameter of the red blood cell the Fahraeus±Lindquisteffect occurs and there is a decrease in wall shearstress. However, as the diameter of the blood vesseldecreases further, the red blood cells have to squeezethrough the vessel and often can only pass in single file.
n this case, the inverse Fahraeus±Lindquist effectoccurs and the wall shear stress increases.
ones are anisotropic but are approximately transversely isotropic.
n otherwords, bones are stronger along one axis than they are along a pivotal (i.e.,normal or orthogonal) axis, and are approximately the same strength no matterhow they are rotated around the one axis.The stress-strain relations of bones can be modeled using Hooke's law, in whichthey are related by elastic moduli, e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio or theLamé parameters. The constitutive matrix, a fourth-order tensor, depends onthe isotropy of the bone.
There are three main types of muscles:
eletal muscle (striated):
Unlike cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle candevelop a sustained condition known as tetany through high frequencystimulation, resulting in overlapping twitches and a phenomenon known aswave summation.
t a sufficiently high frequency, tetany occurs, and thecontracticle force appears constant through time. This allows skeletal muscleto develop a wide variety of forces. This muscle type can be voluntarycontrolled. Hill's Model is the most popular model used to study muscle.
Fig: Red blood cells