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Government Shutdown

Government Shutdown

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Published by mmcauliff

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Published by: mmcauliff on Mar 01, 2011
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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
 
 
 
Shutdown of the Federal Government:Causes, Processes, and Effects
Clinton T. Brass
Analyst in Government Organization and ManagementFebruary 18, 2011
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL34680
 
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects Congressional Research Service
Summary
When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they experience a funding gap.Under the Antideficiency Act, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. Failureof the President and Congress to reach agreement on interim or full-year funding measuresoccasionally has caused government shutdowns, the longest of which lasted 21 days, fromDecember 16, 1995, to January 6, 1996. Government shutdowns have necessitated furloughs of several hundred thousand federal employees, required cessation or reduction of many governmentactivities, and affected numerous sectors of the economy. This report discusses the causes,processes, and effects of federal government shutdowns, including potential issues for Congress.For questions concerning congressional operations, see the contact information contained in the“Key Policy Staff” table at the end of this report.For background on funding gaps, see CRS Report RS20348,
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview
, by Jessica Tollestrup. 
 
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects Congressional Research Service
Contents
Budget Negotiations and Choices................................................................................................1
 
Causes of Federal Shutdowns......................................................................................................2
 
OMB and Agency Shutdown Processes.......................................................................................3
 
Effects of a Federal Government Shutdown.................................................................................5
 
Effects on Federal Officials and Employees...........................................................................5
 
Examples of Excepted Activities and Personnel.....................................................................6
 
Effects on the Public .............................................................................................................7
 
Effects on Mandatory Spending Programs.............................................................................8
 
Potential Issues for Congress.......................................................................................................9
 
Quality and Specificity of Agency Planning ..........................................................................9
 
Availability of Agency Shutdown Plans...............................................................................10
 
 
Contacts
Author Contact Information......................................................................................................10
 
Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................10
 
Key Policy Staff........................................................................................................................10
 
 

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