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Ultrasonic Motion Detector

Ultrasonic Motion Detector

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Published by Rohit Gaba

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Published by: Rohit Gaba on Mar 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/06/2013

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® 
P O P t r o n i x
 
U l t r a s o n i c  M o t i o n  D e t e c t o r
w w w . p o p t r o n i x . c o m
1
A simple circuit that lets you keep tabs on anything that moves.
Something's out thereon the porch,in the driveway, or behind the shed. Ormaybe it's insidein the garage,basement, or den. Whatever it is, human orbeast, it is moving. Perhaps it's just yourteenager sneaking in from a late night out.Possibly it is only the neighborhood cat.Or, more ominously, it could be a prowlerbent on theft or physical harm. Whateveris going on, you know something is upbecause you just installed the
UltrasonicMotion Detector
described in this article.Depending on what parts you haveavailable, or if you buy the complete kitfrom the source mentioned in the PartsList, the Ultrasonic Motion Detector can bebuilt for less than $30. It contains acomplete ultrasonic (40-kHz) crystal-controlled transmitter and a supersensitivereceiver on a printed-circuit board that
Ultrasonic
MotionDetector
BY RONALD A. REIS
OCT 1 1997
 
P O P t r o n i x
 
U l t r a s o n i c  M o t i o n  D e t e c t o r
w w w . p o p t r o n i x . c o m
2
measures only 1-1/2 by 3 inches.The device detects motion from 4 to 7-meters away. Once that occurs, a red LEDlights. But with additional circuitryattached to the output, the detector canturn on lights, sound buzzers, trip arecording device, or even call the police.Also, the circuit can be made to sound offwith a message when anyone moveswithin its field of detection. Using variousvoice recording and playback circuits, youmight even have the Ultrasonic MotionDetector provide a pleasant greeting orsnarl with a barking dog sound whensomeone approaches the front door. Asyou can see, your Ultrasonic MotionDetector project can be put to work in avariety of ways. Let's now look at how itworks.
Circuit Description
The schematic for the UltrasonicMotion Detector is shown in Fig. 1. A 9-voltbattery, B1, directly provides power forsome sections of the circuit. The battery isalso connected to a 78L05 regulator, IC3.which provides a 5-volt-DC power sourcefor other sections of the circuit.The transmitter section of the Detectoris basically a crystal-controlled relaxationoscillator built around a 4049 hex inverter,IC2. One of the 4049 sections, IC2-c, alongwith resistors R21 and R22, and capacitorsC11 and C12, "pings" the 40-kHz crystalinto sustained oscillation. The remaining4049 sections act as linear buffers to drive a40-kHz ultrasonic transmitting transducer,BZ2.The receiver section of the circuit ismade up of four AC-coupled stages, each
IC3
78L05
IGO +5VC10.1+C9100R1747
+9VB19V+C1133pFXTAL140kHzIC2-c1/6
4049
R2110 MEGR22150KC1233pF7 63812IC2-a1/6
4049
IC2-b1/6
4049
5411914+9V121015IC2-e1/6
4049
IC2-d1/6
4049
IC2-f1/6
4049
BZ2*7651/4
LM324
R61KR231 MEG
SENSITIVITY
R710 MEGC5100pF+5VC4.47R5220KR42.2KC2.01+5VR1100KR310 MEGBZ1*R2100KC1.11/4
LM324
234111C3.47R81 MEGD1
1N4148
+SIGNAL ON+9VR201KD5
1N4002
LED1Q1
BC639
R1910KR1810 MEGD4
1N4148
1/4
LM324
R1610K131214C8.47+5VR15100KR141 MEG8910R1310KC7.011/4
LM324
R101 MEGC6.01R111.2 MEGD2
1N4148
D3
1N4148
R121.2 MEGR91 MEGIC1-c
+
IC1-d
+
* SEE TEXT
IC1-a
+
IC1-b
+
Fig. 1.
This is the schematic diagram for the Ultrasonic Motion Detector.When motion is sensed, transistor Q1 switches on,lighting LED1.
 
3
P O P t r o n i x
 
U l t r a s o n i c  M o t i o n  D e t e c t o r
w w w . p o p t r o n i x . c o m
built around one of four sections of anLM324 op-amp IC1. In the first stage, theinput voltage developed across R1 and R2is modulated by a 40-kHz, ultrasonicreceiving transducer, BZ1, and is then fedto IC1-a, where it is amplified. Thereceiving transducer detects any reflectedsound produced by the transmittingtransducer, BZ2. If there is no movement,the resulting envelope signal is just astraight line: diode D1 and resistor R8operate as a negative peak detector torecover the envelope signal.In the second stage, which is builtaround IC1-b, the recovered signal is againamplified. The time constant of IC1-b isquite slow so that the envelope can befollowed; the output of the second stage isa DC level that represents the strength ofthe envelope. If there is movement, theenvelope will reflect it in the form of apositive or negative signal.At the input to the third stageadifferential amplifier built around IC1-cthere are two diodes, D2 and D3. Theydetect both positive and negative pulses.When there is no movement, the voltage atpin 7 of IC1-b is half the supply voltageand neither D2 or D3 can conduct. Thevoltage at pin 8 of IC1-c is then low. If thesignal rises above +0.7 volt (a silicondiode's breakdown voltage), D3 conductscausing the output on pin 8 to go high. Ifthe signal falls below –0.7 volt, D2conducts, which also causes the output togo high.  Thus we have a window detector.It detects voltages that move both belowand above a given range.The fourth stage, built around IC1-d, isset up as a monostable flip-flop.  That stageconverts any signal that gets through thefilter into a pulse substantial enough toturn on transistor Q1. When Q1 conducts,LED1 turns on and an output signal isprovided to drive a separate relay or anyother device connected to the circuit (moreon that later). The time constant of themonostable flip-flop is about half a secondand is set by C8 and R18. Diode D4 is usedto separate the charge and discharge timeconstants. It lets the circuit switch onimmediately when movement is detected,but allows about a half-second delay forthe reset.
Construction
The author built the Ultrasonic MotionDetector from a complete kit of parts,which includes a pre-etched and drilledPC board. That kit is available from thesource mentioned in the Parts List. If youchoose to round up your owncomponents, it is still recommended thatyou use a PC board. You can use the foilpattern shown in Fig. 2 to make your own.Refer to the parts-placement diagramshown in Fig. 3 while assembling yourcircuit. Begin by soldering all resistorsflush to the PC board. Then install the fivediodes, making sure to orient themproperly. Next, install the capacitors. Besure to double check the polarity of C9.Go on to install crystal XTAL1. Bendthe crystal's leads so that the part rests flaton the board. Note the two unused holesnext to the two for the crystal. You canbend a resistor lead around the crystal in a"U" shape and solder the lead ends to theunused holes. That should hold the crystalin place.Install the potentiometer. Thencontinue by mounting the 78L05 voltageregulator and the BC639 transistor; thosetwo parts look alike, so be careful not to
1-5/8 INCHES
Fig. 2.
If you'd like to etch your own board, use this full-sized template.

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