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Peters J. & Schmidt K. 2004. – Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey. A preliminary assessment. Anthropozoologica 39 (1) 179-218

Peters J. & Schmidt K. 2004. – Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Gobekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey. A preliminary assessment. Anthropozoologica 39 (1) 179-218

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179
 ANTHROPOZOOLOGICA2004 39 (1) © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-PotteryNeolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey:a preliminary assessment
Joris PETERS
Institut für Paläoanatomie und Geschichte der Tiermedizin,Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität,Kaulbachstraße 37, D-80539 München (Germany) joris.peters@palaeo.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de
Klaus SCHMIDT
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut,Orient-Abteilung,Podbielskiallee 69-71, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)kls@orient.dainst.de
Peters J. & Schmidt K. 2004. – Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery NeolithicGöbekli Tepe, south-eastern Turkey: a preliminary assessment.
 Anthropozoologica
39 (1):179-218.
 ABSTRACT
The recently discovered Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Göbekli Tepe (SE-Turkey) is unparalleled in its architecture and art. The latter is particularly rich in animal depictions — stone figurines, sculptures and megalithic pillarsdecorated with bas-reliefs — and illustrates the prominent role animalsplayed in the spiritual world of PPN human groups frequenting the site. Upto now, ten vertebrate taxa could be identified, nine of which also appeared inthe archaeofaunal record of the site. Discussion focussed upon the possiblerole of the animal species figured at Göbekli Tepe, in particular whether thespace demarcated by the pillars could have witnessed the performance of hunting rituals, initiation and passage rites, spiritual encounters or funeralpractices. In view of our limited knowledge about the role animals played inthe symbolic world of the PPN, in particular with respect to the logic andmetaphysics governing the choice of species, the question of what purpose theenclosures served will take much more time to be properly answered.
KEY WORDS
Turkey,SE Anatolia,megalithic art,PPNA,animal symbolism,archaeofauna.
 
RÉSUMÉ
Les animaux dans le monde symbolique du PPNB de Göbekli Tepe, Turquie duSud-Est: première évaluation.
Le site néolithique PPNB de Göbekli Tepe (Sud-Est de la Turquie), récem-ment mis au jour, présente une architecture et un art sans pareils. L’art estparticulièrement riche en représentations animales — figurines en pierre,sculptures et piliers mégalithiques décorées en bas-relief — et montre le rôleimportant joué par les animaux dans le monde spirituel de groupes humainsPPN fréquentant le site. Jusqu’ici dix taxons de vertébrés ont été identifiés,dont neuf sont aussi présents dans l’archéofaune du site. Le débat porte sur lerôle éventuel des espèces animales figurées à Göbekli Tepe, en particulier àsavoir si l’espace démarqué par les piliers a pu être témoin de rituels de chasse,d’initiation et rites de passage, de rencontres spirituelles ou de pratiquesfunèbres. Étant donné notre connaissance limitée concernant le rôle joué parles animaux dans le monde symbolique du PPN, en particulier par rapport àla logique et à la métaphysique gouvernant le choix des espèces, il faudra dutemps pour résoudre la question relative à la fonction des enclos.
specialised workshop areas as well as by the gro- wing importance given to open courtyards ascommunal space (Cauvin 1977, 1997;Hauptmann 1993;Rosenberg
et al.
1995;Özdo
 ˘
gan and Özdo
 ˘
gan 1998;Schmidt 1998a, b,2000;Stordeur 1999, 2000).Since 1995, members of the Museum of 
Ș
anlıurfa and the German ArchaeologicalInstitute (DAI) have been carrying out archaeolo-gical research at the PPN site of Göbekli Tepe.Located on top of a hill (
c.
800 m asl), the siteis unique because of its impressive architectureand highly diverse yet unparalleled set of objectsdepicting animals, ranging from small stonefigurines through sculptures and statues of animals to representations on megaliths (Beile-Bohn
et al.
1998;Hauptmann 1999, 2002;Hauptmann and Schmidt 2001;Schmidt 1995,1999, 2001, 2003;Schmidt and Hauptmann2003). Although the site is only partly excavated,it is not unlikely that the finds from GöbekliTepe may contribute to our understanding of the transition from a subsistence pattern basedupon hunting and foraging at the end of thePleistocene to the appearance of agriculture and
Peters J. & Schmidt K.
180
 ANTHROPOZOOLOGICA• 2004 • 39 (1)
MOTS CLÉS
Turquie, Anatolie du Sud-Est,art mégalithique,PPNA,symbolisme animal,archéofaune.
INTRODUCTIONThe transformation from a (semi-)mobile hun-ter-forager way of life into the highly productiveand successful system of crop-livestock farming was a lengthy and complex process, triggered,among other things, by the establishment of (semi-)sedentary communities, a move thatreflects the degree of control exerted by a humangroup over a particular territory and its resources(Cauvin 1979, 1997;Bar-Yosef 2000). In thenorthern Fertile Crescent, the appearance of suchcommunities dates to the 11th millennium cal.BC. Based on the work at Tell Mureybet (Fig. 1)and related sites by the late Jacques Cauvin — to whom this contribution is dedicated —, it couldbe demonstrated that in the following millennia,the Euphrates drainage area witnessed not only considerable demographic growth but also anincrease in socio-cultural complexity, as reflectedby settlement size and architecture. Sites datingto the (second half of the) 10th and the 9th mil-lennium cal. BC,
e.g.
, Jerf el Ahmar, Dja’de, TellCheikh Hassan, Çayönü Tepesi, Nevalı Çori, arecharacterised by spatial division of residential and
 
 Animals in the symbolic world of PPN Göbekli Tepe (Turkey)
181
 ANTHROPOZOOLOGICA2004 • 39 (1)
F
IG
. 1. – Map with location of major sites mentioned in the text.

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