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Wimax

Wimax

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Published by mycatalysts
WiMAX is an acronym that stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX is a wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) technology that can connect IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) hotspots with each other and to ther parts of the Internet. It can provide a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. WiMAX is the wireless solution for the next step up in scale, the metropolitan area network (MAN). WiMax does not conflict with Wi-Fi but actually complements it. A WiMax system consists of two parts: A WiMax tower & A WiMax receiver. WiMAX has the potential to do to broadband Internet access what cell phones have done to phone access. Some cellular companies are also evaluating WiMAX as a means of increasing bandwidth for a variety of data-intensive applications. The purpose of this Paper is to highlight and assess the value of WiMAX as the right solution to:
WiMAX is an acronym that stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX is a wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) technology that can connect IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) hotspots with each other and to ther parts of the Internet. It can provide a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadband access. WiMAX is the wireless solution for the next step up in scale, the metropolitan area network (MAN). WiMax does not conflict with Wi-Fi but actually complements it. A WiMax system consists of two parts: A WiMax tower & A WiMax receiver. WiMAX has the potential to do to broadband Internet access what cell phones have done to phone access. Some cellular companies are also evaluating WiMAX as a means of increasing bandwidth for a variety of data-intensive applications. The purpose of this Paper is to highlight and assess the value of WiMAX as the right solution to:

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Published by: mycatalysts on Mar 02, 2011
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06/13/2011

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THE DAWN OF NEW TECHNICAL ERA
 
PRESENTED  BYL.GURU KUMAR               II ECEE MAIL:lokkugurukumar@gmail.comB.SRAVAN KUMAR          II ECEE MAIL:sravan111k@gmail.com(WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS)NBKR  INSTITUTE  OF  SCIENCE  ANDTECHNOLOGYVIDYANAGAR NELLORE ABSTRACTWiMAX is an acronym that stands for WorldwideInteroperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX isa  wireless  metropolitan  area  network  (MAN)technology that can connect IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)hotspots with each other and to other parts of theInternet. It can provide a wireless alternative tocable and DSL for last mile (last km) broadbandaccess. WiMAX is the wireless solution for thenext  step  up  in  scale,  the  metropolitan  areanetwork (MAN). WiMax does not conflict withWi-Fi but actually complements  it. A WiMaxsystem consists of two parts: A WiMax tower & AWiMax receiver. WiMAX has the potential to doto broadband Internet access what cell phoneshave  done  to  phone  access.  Some  cellularcompanies are also evaluating WiMAX as a meansof increasing bandwidth for a variety of data-intensive applications. The purpose of this Paperis to highlight and assess the value of WiMAX asthe right solution to:
 
offers cheap voice calls and high speedinternet• ensures  a boost for government securityextend the currently limited coverage of public LAN    (hotspots) to citywide coverage(hot zones) the same technology being usableat home andon the move,•  blanket  metropolitan  areas  for  mobiledata-centricservice delivery,• offer fixed broadband access in urbanand suburban areas where copper qualityis poor or unbundling difficult,• bridge the digital divide in low-densityareas where technical and economic factorsmake broadband deployment verychallenging.In addition to these uses, this paper willhighlight other potential applications, suchas telephony or an effective point-to-multipoint backhauling solution foroperators or enterprises1.INTRODUCTIONWiMAX is an acronym that standsfor  Worldwide  Interoperability  forMicrowave Access, a  certification mark forproducts  that  pass  conformity  andinteroperability tests for the IEEE 802.16standards.Products that pass the conformitytests for WiMAX are capable of formingwireless connections between them to permitthe carrying of internet packet data. It issimilar  to    Wi-Fi  in  concept,  but  hascertain  improvements  that  are  aimed  atimproving performance and should permitusage  over  much  greater  distances.  theWiMAX forum, backed by industry leaders,will encourage the widespread   adoption of broadband  wireless access by establishing abrand  for  the  technology  and  pushinginteroperability between products.2.  TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES OVER WIFIBecause IEEE 802.16 networks use thesame    Logical    Link   Controller (standardizedby IEEE 802.2) as other LANs and WANs, it canbe both bridged and routed to them.An important aspect of the IEEE 802.16 is that itdefines  a  MAC  layer  that  supports  multiplephysical layer (PHY) specifications. This is crucialto allow equipment makers to differentiate theirofferings. This is also an important aspect of whyWiMAX can be described as a "framework for theevolution of wireless broadband" rather than astatic  implementation  of  wireless  technologies.Enhancements    to    current    and    newtechnologies  and  potentially  new    basictechnologies incorporated into the PHY (physicallayer) can be used. A converging trend is the useof multi-mode and multi-radio SoCs and systemdesigns that are harmonized through the use of common  MAC,  system  management,  roaming,IMS and other levels of the system. WiMAX maybe described as a bold attempt at forging manytechnologies to serve many needs across manyspectrums.The MAC is significantly different from that of Wi-Fi (and ethernet from which Wi-Fi is derived).In Wi-Fi, the MAC uses contention accessallsubscriber stations wishing to pass data throughan  access  point  are  competing  for  the  AP'sattention on random basis. This can cause distantnodes from the AP to be repeatedly interrupted byless sensitive, closer nodes, greatly  reducing theirthroughput. By contrast, the 802.16 MAC is ascheduling   MAC   where   the subscriber stationonly has to compete once (for initial entry into thenetwork).  After that it is allocated a time slot bythe base station.  The time slot can enlarge andconstrict, but it remains assigned to the subscriberstation meaning that other subscribers are notsupposed  to  use  it  but  take  their  turn.  Thisscheduling algorithm is stable under overload andoversubscription (unlike 802.11). It is also muchmore  bandwidth  efficient.  The  schedulingalgorithm also allows the base station to controlQuality of Service by balancing the assignments
 
among the needs of the subscriber stations.A recent addition to the WiMAX standard isunderway which will add full capability byenabling WiMAX nodes to simultaneouslyoperate in "subscriber station" and "basestation" mode. This will blur that initialdistinction  and  allow  for  widespreadadoption of WiMAX based mesh networksand promises widespread WiMAX adoption.The  original  WiMAX  standard,  IEEE802.16, specifies WiMAX in the 10 to 66 GHzrange. 802.16a added support for the 2 to 11GHz range, of which most parts are alreadyunlicensed internationally and only very fewstill require domestic licenses. Most businessinterest  will  probably  be  in  the  802.16astandard, as opposed to licensed frequencies.The WiMAX specification  improves uponmany  of  the  limitations  of  the  Wi-Fistandard by providing increased bandwidthand  stronger  encryption.  It  also aims  toprovide  connectivity  between  network endpoints without direct line of sight in somecircumstances. The details of performanceunder  non-line  of  sight  (NLOS)circumstances are unclear as they have yet tobe demonstrated. It is commonly consideredthat spectrum under 5-6 GHz is needed toprovide reasonable NLOS performance andcost effectiveness for PtM (point to multi-point) deployments.3. HOW WIMAX WORKSIn practical terms, WiMAX would operatesimilar to WiFi but at higher speeds, overgreater distances and for a greater numberof  users.  WiMAX  could  potentially  erase  thesuburban and rural blackout areas that currentlyhave no broadband Internet access because phoneand  cable companies  have  not  yet  run  thenecessary wires to those remote locations.A WiMAX system consists of two parts: A  WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - A single WiMAX tower can providecoverage to a very large area -- as big as 3,000square  miles  (~8,000  square  km).  A  WiMAXreceiver - The receiver and antenna could be asmall box orPCMCIA card, or they could be builtinto a laptop the way WiFi access is today.A WiMAX tower station can connectdirectly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth,wired connection (for example, a T3 line). It canalso connect to another WiMAX tower using aline-of-sight, microwave link. This connection to asecond tower (often referred to as a  backhaul),along with the ability of a single tower to cover upto 3,000 square miles, is what allows WiMAX toprovide coverage to remote rural areas.  What thispoints out is that WiMAX actually can providetwo forms of wireless service:
There is the non-line-of-sight, WiFi sort of service, where a small antenna on yourcomputer connects to the tower. In thismode,  WiMAX  uses  a  lower  frequencyrange -- 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to WiFi).Lower-wavelength transmissions are not aseasily disrupted by physical obstructions --they are better able to diffract, or bend,around obstacles WIMAX TRANSMITTING TOWER 

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