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Witricity

Witricity

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Published by mycatalysts
Abstract:
The idea of wireless generation and transmission of power is in experiment from a long time. Here, in this paper we are trying to develop a proper device that can generate voltages and then transmit them wirelessly through a local network (after that our next stage will be to expand it to global scale) in the RF range for household electricity requirement. Ongoing engineering revolutions going in field of transmission and distribution will help us to make this dream to come in reality. The person who first paved the way of dreaming wireless power is NIKOLO TESLA. In 1888 he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with his ideas for polyphase systems, which would allow transmission of AC electricity over large distances. The connection would be made by electrostatic induction or conduction through plasma. Tesla firmly believed that Wardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses. But after lighting vacuum tubes wirelessly, he provided us with enough evidence of the potential and feasibility of wireless power transmission network.
Abstract:
The idea of wireless generation and transmission of power is in experiment from a long time. Here, in this paper we are trying to develop a proper device that can generate voltages and then transmit them wirelessly through a local network (after that our next stage will be to expand it to global scale) in the RF range for household electricity requirement. Ongoing engineering revolutions going in field of transmission and distribution will help us to make this dream to come in reality. The person who first paved the way of dreaming wireless power is NIKOLO TESLA. In 1888 he developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working with his ideas for polyphase systems, which would allow transmission of AC electricity over large distances. The connection would be made by electrostatic induction or conduction through plasma. Tesla firmly believed that Wardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses. But after lighting vacuum tubes wirelessly, he provided us with enough evidence of the potential and feasibility of wireless power transmission network.

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Published by: mycatalysts on Mar 02, 2011
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02/11/2012

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International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics
 
123
Wireless Electricity Transmission.
   
Abstract:
The idea of wireless generation and transmission of power is in experiment from a long time. Here, in this paper we are trying to develop a proper device that can generatevoltages and then transmit them wirelessly through a localnetwork (after that our next stage will be to expand it to globalscale) in the RF range for household electricity requirement.Ongoing engineering revolutions going in field of transmission and distribution will help us to make this dreamto come in reality. The person who first paved the way of dreaming wireless power is NIKOLO TESLA. In 1888 hedeveloped the principles of his Tesla coil and began workingwith his ideas for polyphase systems, which would allowtransmission of AC electricity over large distances. Theconnection would be made by electrostatic induction or conduction through plasma. Tesla firmly believed thatWardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission andreception across large distances with negligible losses. Butafter lighting vacuum tubes wirelessly, he provided us withenough evidence of the potential and feasibility of wirelesspower transmission network. 
Keywords:
Tesla Coil, Wireless energy transfer, Tesla Coil Controller,Power Consumption, Wardenclyfee Tower.
 
Introduction:
Nikolo Tesla generated AC of one million voltsusing a conical Tesla coil. Harmlessly passes through humantissue with virtually no feeling or shocking effects. He wasdeveloping a system for wireless telegraphy, telephony and thetransmission of power, experimented with high-voltageelectricity and the possibility of wireless transmitting anddistributing large amounts of electrical energy over longdistances. Tesla discovered terrestrial stationary waves withinthe earth. He demonstrated that the Earth behaves as a smoothpolished conductor and possesses electrical vibrations. he lithundreds of lamps wirelessly at a distance of up to twenty-fivemiles (40 km). He transmitted signals several kilometers andlit neon tubes conducting through the ground.          
What is a Tesla Coil?
 
A Tesla coil is a category of disruptive dischargetransformer coils, named after the inventor, Nikolo Tesla.Tesla coils are composed of coupled resonant electric circuits.It is a special transformer that can take the 110v electricityfrom our house and capable of converting it rapidly to a greatdeal of high-voltage high–frequency, low amperage power.The high frequency output of even a small Tesla coil can lightup fluorescent tubes held several feet away without any wireconnections. The high frequency high-voltage energyproduced possesses qualities unlike conventional electricity. Itdefies most insulation material , transmits energy withoutwires , produces heat , light , and noise yet harmlessly passesthrough human tissue with virtually no feeling or shockingeffects. A large number of spent or discarded fluorescent tubes(their burned out cathodes are irrelevant) will light up if hungnear a long wire running from a Tesla coil while using lessthan 100 watts drawn by the coil itself when plugged into anelectrical outlet. Tesla, described new and useful combinationsemployed in transformer coils. The transmitting coil or conductor arranged and excited to cause currents or oscillationto propagate through conduction through the natural mediumfrom one point to another remote point at receiver, coil or conductor of the transmitted signals. The production of currents of very high potential could be attained in these coils..   Some of Tesla's later coils were considerably larger and operated at much higher power levels. Tesla coils achievegreat gain in voltage by loosely coupling two resonant LCcircuits together, using an air-core (ironless) transformer.Tesla coils' voltage gain is proportional to the square root of the ratio of secondary and primary inductances. Later coiltypes are an air-core, dual-tuned resonant transformer thatgenerates very high voltages at radio frequencies (RF).The coil achieves a great gain in voltage bytransferring energy from one resonant circuit (the primary) tothe other (the secondary) over a number of cycles.Modern Tesla Coils are designed to generate longsparks, Tesla's. Tesla coils' outer conducting surfaces, whichare charged to a high potential, have large radii of curvature tominimise leakage of the oscillating charges through corona
Asim Kumar Jana
Asst. Professor HOD, ECEHaldia Institute of Technology,Haldia-721657asimkjana@rediffmail.com
Arijit Maity
4th year StudentElectronics &Communication Engg.Haldia Institute of Technology,Haldia-721657maity.arijit@gmail.com
Pritee Verma
4th year student,Chemical Engineering HaldiaInstitute of TechnologyHaldia – 721657pritee_vrm@yahoo.co.in
Debjyoti Dwivedy
3
rd
year student,Electronics & CommunicationEnggHaldia Institute of Technology,Haldia-721657todabbu@gmail.com
Copyright © 2007
Paper Identification Number:  CS-4.2
This peer-reviewed paper has been published by the PentagramResearch Centre (P) Limited. Responsibility of contents of thispaper rests upon the authors and not upon Pentagram ResearchCentre (P) Limited. Copies can be obtained from the companyfor a cost.
 
Wireless Electricity Transmission
 
 
124
discharges or sparks. The intensity of the voltage gain of thecircuit with a free or elevated toroid is proportional to thequantity of charge displaced, which is determined by theproduct of the capacitance of the circuit, the voltage and thefrequency of the currents employed. 
Operational Principle:
 
Later coils consist of a primary tank circuit, which is a seriesLC circuit composed of a high voltage capacitor, spark gap,and primary coil; and the secondary LC circuit, a seriesresonant circuit consisting of the secondary coil and the toroid.Most modern coils use only a single secondary coil. The toroidactually forms one terminal of a capacitor, the other terminalbeing the Earth ("ground"). The primary LC circuit is "tuned"so that it will resonate at the same frequency as the secondaryLC circuit. The primary and secondary coils are magneticallycoupled, creating a dual-tuned resonant air-core transformer; aTesla Coil's windings are "loosely" coupled, with the primaryand secondary typically sharing only 10-20% of their respective magnetic fields. Tesla Coils spread their electricfield over a large distance to prevent high electrical stresses inthe first place, thereby allowing operation in free air. Mostmodern Tesla coils use simple toroids, to control the highelectrical field near the top of the secondary and to directspark outward, and away, from the primary and secondarywindings. The circuit consists of a secondary coil that isinductively coupled to the primary, one end of which isconnected to ground, while its other end is usually connectedto a smoothly shaped discharge terminal (called a topload).The important requirement is that the primary and secondarysides must be tuned to the same resonant frequency to allowefficient transfer of energy between the primary and secondaryLC circuits. Modern Tesla coils use vacuum tube or power transistor oscillators to excite the primary and generate highfrequency current.   Typical Tesla Coil Schematic Alternate Tesla Coil 
Some notes on Power Consumption of TeslaCoil
:
 
1)  Power Supply -
Initially, in circuit the upto
± 
170 V isapplied to the inverter. Then a step-up transformer (240/2400transformer) is to be used ahead of the inverter. A factor of ten(10(
± 
170) =
± 
1700 V) gave us enough range. This is an oilfilled transformer, called a pole pig and was rated at 5kVA, sothe rated input current is 5000/240 = 20.8 A. This is a veryconservative rating, for continuous operation (run four hoursat 30 A without a problem) in a 40
o
C ambient.
     The power circuit is shown below
:
 
  The rated current for our transformer is 2.8 A at 2400 V, so
L
= 156
.
5 / 2
.
8 = 56 mH; the capacitor bank was formed of 16electrolytic capacitors rated at 1400
μ
F and 450 V. Four wereplaced in series to get a string rated at 350
μ
F and 1800 V.Two strings were then paralleled to get a rated capacitor 
3 of 700
μ
F and 1800 V. Two more strings were added to getanother capacitor 
3 for the negative supply. Finally, 35 k 
,100W resistors, two in series on each side of the supply todischarge the capacitor bank. The power dissipation on eachside is
=
^2/
R
= (1700) ^2 / 70000
 
= 41 W (1)
 
or about20W per resistor. The nominal rated voltage differencebetween
 
and
+ is 2400
2 = 3394 V, or about
± 
1700V.
 2. Gate Driver and Inverter:
The last generation is shown in Fig. 2 are four IGBTs inseries in each leg. 
# Calculations
: During inverter operation, each resistor carries 1/4 of the total supply voltage while its IGBT is off,and 0 while its IGBT is on. The power dissipation for a totalvoltage of 3400 V is
=
V^2
/
R
=(3400
8)^2  / 430000= 0
.
42 W  during the off period, and double this amount, or 0.84 W during inverter operation.
 3. Current Sense Resistors:
In the metal case containing theinverter, there are several other components besides thoseshown in Fig. 2. These include the current sense resistors, afilter for the current waveform to the scope, a small currenttransformer for supplying current information to thecontroller, and some high frequency capacitors for voltage andcurrent support. These are shown in Fig. 3. The switchesSW1-SW8 represent the 8 IGBTs in the inverter.         
 
International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics
 
125
   
# Need for Switching -
The switcher provides a square wavevoltage to the Tesla coil input. A square wave can always becomposed into a fundamental and a series of odd harmonics of sine waves. The magnifier is not resonant at exactly three (or five, or seven) times the fundamental frequency, so theharmonics always face a very high surge impedance. Thecurrent will build up at the resonant frequency but not at theharmonics. This means that a square wave of applied voltagewill produce only a sine wave of current. This sine wave willbe in phase with the voltage at resonance, will lag aboveresonance, and lead below resonance. The difference betweenhard and soft switching is shown in Fig. 4. Two plots of an(approximately) square wave of voltage applied to a Teslacoil, with the resulting(approximately) sinusoidal current aregiven here. In the 1’st  plot the voltage takes about 300 ns tomake the transition. There is little ripple and the currentwaveform is reasonably smooth. In the 2’nd plot, the voltagetransition lasts only about 100 ns.  A spark that occurs 1.9 ms into the pulse train with
± 
900 Vapplied might occur 1.2 ms after start with
± 
1200 V applied. Acurrent of about 30 A (rms) just before spark was observedfrequently. The power dissipated in
R
1 with this current in it is
=
I^2 R
= (30)2(0
.
02) = 18 W which is within the range of a22 W resistor. The most critical limit in the circuit is that of the IGBTs, which is 100 A peak in short bursts. If the peak current is 100 A in a sinusoidal waveform, then the rmscurrent limit is 70 A. At 70 A, the power dissipation in
R
1 is
= (70) ^2  (0
.
02) = 98 W which is a little over four times thesteady state rating. For the intermittent operation used here,
R
1should last indefinitely, at least until the IGBTs blow. 
4. IGBT Overcurrent Protection :
  
   
5. Tesla Coil Controller
:
 
 
#
Fire from other induced currents
- Tesla coils are good atinducing currents. Beware of metal things that are connectedto the same ground as a tesla coil.
# Hazards to electronics
 - A tesla coil must be connected to a ground that is separatefrom the house ground or water pipes. Connecting anyone coilto either of these grounds is a recipe for disaster. 
6. Waveform Plots:
 
In the following figures, A1 and A2 refer to the two analogchannels of the HP 54645 D oscilloscopes. A1 is the voltagewaveform applied to the Tesla coil, measured at the output of the inverter. A2 is the current, as represented by the voltageacross a 0.02
resistor. A scale of 100 mV/div would be 5A/div. Fig. 8 shows the same waveforms after 1 ms of operation(except for Channel 4, which is no longer of interest to us).
 
Fig. 9 shows the voltage applied to the Tesla coil and theresulting current for about 4.5 ms. The voltage is A1 at the topof the figure and the current is A2 at the bottom. Operation iswell below breakout. 
Fig. 10 shows a closeup of the waveforms when ENABLE goes low.Both outputs of the 34066 go low, so Channel 0 goes high and staysthere.
 

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