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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 Signals and systems
1.2 Physics, mathematics, and engineering
1.3 Electrical and computer engineering
1.4 A course on signals and systems
1.5 Confession of the author
1.6 A note to the reader
Signals
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Time
2.2.1 Time – Real number line
2.2.2 Where are time 0 and time −∞?
2.3 Continuous-time (CT) signals
2.3.1 Staircase approximation of CT signals – Sampling
2.4 Discrete-time (DT) signals
2.4.1 Interpolation – Construction
2.6.1 Real-time and non-real-time processing
2.7. CT STEP AND REAL-EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS - TIME CONSTANT 27
2.7 CT step and real-exponential functions - time con-
2.7.1 Time shifting
2.8 DT impulse sequences
2.8.1 Step and real-exponential sequences - time constant
Problems
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Complex numbers
3.2.1 Angles - Modulo
3.3 Matrices
3.4 Mathematical notations
3.5 Mathematical conditions used in signals and systems
3.5.1 Signals with finite total energy – Real-world signals
3.5.2 Can we skip the study of CT signals and systems?
3.7 MATLAB
3.7.1 How Figures 1.1–1.3 are generated
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Frequency of CT pure sinusoids
4.2 CT periodic signals
4.2.1 Fourier series of CT periodic signals
4.3 Frequency spectra of CT aperiodic signals
4.3.1 Why we stress Fourier transform and downplay Fourier series
4.4 Distribution of energy in frequencies
4.4.1 Frequency Shifting and modulation
4.4.2 Time-Limited Bandlimited Theorem
4.4.3 Time duration and frequency bandwidth
4.5 Frequency spectra of CT pure sinusoids in (−∞,∞)
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 From the definition of integration
5.2 Relationship between spectra of x(t) and x(nT)
5.2.1 Sampling theorem
5.2.2 Can the phase spectrum of x(t) be computed from x(nT)?
5.2.3 Direct computation at a single frequency
5.3 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier
5.3.1 Plotting spectra for ω in [0,ωs/2]
5.3.2 Plotting spectra for ω in [−ωs/2,ωs/2)
5.4 Magnitude spectra of measured data
5.4.2 Magnitude spectrum of middle-C sound
5.5 FFT-computed magnitude spectra of finite-duration
5.5.1 Comparison of FFT-computed and exact magnitude spectra
5.5.2 Padding with trailing zeros
5.6 Magnitude spectra of dial and ringback tones
5.7. DO FREQUENCY SPECTRA PLAY ANY ROLE IN REAL-TIME PROCESSING?117
5.7 Do frequency spectra play any role in real-time pro-
5.7.1 Spectrogram
Systems – Memoryless
6.1 Introduction
6.2 A study of CT systems
6.2.1 What role do signals play in designing systems?
6.3 Systems modeled as black box
6.4 Causality, time-invariance, and initial relaxedness
6.4.1 DT systems
6.5 Linear time-invariant (LTI) memoryless systems
6.6 Op amps as nonlinear memoryless elements
6.7 Op amps as LTI memoryless elements
6.7.1 Limitations of physical devices
6.7.2 Limitation of memoryless model
6.8 Ideal op amps
6.9 Concluding remarks
7.2 Causal systems with memory
7.2.1 Forced response, initial conditions, and natural response
7.3 Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems
7.3.1 Finite and infinite impulse responses (FIR and IIR)
7.3.2 Discrete convolution
7.4 Some difference equations
7.4.1 Comparison of convolutions and difference equations
7.5 DT LTI basic elements and basic block diagrams
7.6 State-space (ss) equations
7.6.1 Computer computation and real-time processing using ss equa- tions
7.7 Transfer functions – z-transform
7.7.1 Transfer functions of unit-delay and unit-advance elements
7.8 Composite systems: Transform domain or time do-
7.9 Concluding remarks
CT LTI and lumped systems
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Causality, forced response and initial conditions
8.2 Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems
8.2.1 Integral convolution
8.3 Modeling LTI systems
8.4 State-space (ss) equations
8.4.1 Significance of states
8.4.2 Computer computation of ss equations
8.4.3 Why we downplay convolutions
8.4.4 Any need to study high-order differential equations?
8.5 CT LTI basic elements
8.5.2 Differentiators
8.6.1 Transfer functions of differentiators and integrators
8.7 Transfer functions of RLC circuits
8.7.1 Rational transfer functions and differential equations
8.7.2 Proper rational transfer functions
8.8 Lumped or distributed
8.8.1 Why we do not study CT FIR systems
8.9 Realizations
8.9.1 From ss equations to transfer functions
8.9.2 Initial conditions
8.10 The degree of rational functions – Coprimeness
8.11 Do transfer functions describe systems fully?
8.11.1 Complete characterization
8.11.2 Equivalence of ss equations and transfer functions
8.12 Concluding remarks
9.1.1 Design criteria – time domain
9.2 Poles and zeros
9.3 Some Laplace transform pairs
9.3.2 Reasons for not using transfer functions in computing responses
9.4 Step responses – Roles of poles and zeros
9.4.1 Responses of poles as t→∞
9.5 Stability
9.5.1 What holds for lumped systems may not hold for distributed systems
9.5.3 The Routh test
9.6 Steady-state and transient responses
9.6.1 Time constant of stable systems
9.7 Frequency responses
9.7.1 Plotting frequency responses
9.7.3 Non-uniqueness in design
9.7.4 Frequency domain and transform domain
9.7.5 Identification by measuring frequency responses
9.7.6 Parametric identification
9.8.3 Conventional derivation of frequency responses
9.9. FREQUENCY RESPONSES AND FREQUENCY SPECTRA 247
9.9 Frequency responses and frequency spectra
9.9.1 Why modulation is not an LTI process
9.9.2 Resonance – Time domain and frequency domain
9.10.1 A brief history
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Op-amp circuits based on a single-pole model
10.2.1 Model reduction – Operational frequency range
10.3 Seismometers
10.3.1 Accelerometers
10.4 Composite systems – Loading problem
10.4.1 Complete characterization
10.4.2 Necessity of feedback
10.4.3 Advantage of feedback
10.5. DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS – POLE PLACEMENT 275
10.5 Design of control systems – Pole placement
10.5.1 Is the design unique?
10.6 Inverse systems
10.8 Feedback model of general op-amp circuit
10.8.1 Feedback model of Wien-bridge oscillator
DT LTI and lumped systems
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Some z-Transform pairs
11.3. DT LTI LUMPED SYSTEMS – PROPER RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 291
11.3 DT LTI lumped systems – proper rational functions
11.3.1 Rational transfer functions and Difference equations
11.3.2 Poles and zeros
11.4 Inverse z-transform
11.4.1 Step responses – Roles of poles and zeros
11.4.2 s-plane and z-plane
11.4.3 Responses of Poles as n→∞
11.5.1 What holds for lumped systems may not hold for distributed systems
11.5.2 The Jury test
11.6.1 Time constant of stable systems
11.7 Frequency Responses
Its frequency response is
11.8. FREQUENCY RESPONSES AND FREQUENCY SPECTRA 313
11.8 Frequency responses and frequency spectra
11.9 Realizations – State-space equations
11.9.1 Basic block diagrams
11.10 Digital processing of CT signals
11.10.1 Filtering of piano’s middle C
References
Index
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Published by: Anika Sayed on Mar 02, 2011
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