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Published by: Mira Schauble on Mar 02, 2011
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Carl Jung1
Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
Jung in 1910
26 July 1875Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland
6 June 1961 (aged 85)Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Analytical psychology
Burghölzli, Swiss Army (as a commissioned officer in World War I)
Doctoral advisor
Eugen Bleuler, Sigmund Freud
Known for
Analytical psychology
Carl Gustav Jung
German pronunciation:
ŋ]; 26 July 1875
6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist,an influentialthinker, and the founder of analytical psychology.Jungis often considered thefirst modern psychologist tostate that the human psyche is"by nature religious" and to explore it in depth.
Though not the firstto analyze dreams, he has become perhaps one of the most well known pioneers in the field of dream analysis.Unlike Freud et. al. he was a self described natural scientist not a theoretical psychologist. For Jung this salientdistinction revolved around his initial process of deep observation followed by categorizations rather than the reverseprocess of imagining what categories exist and then proceeding to seek for proof of and then discover that one wascorrect, always correct. While he was a fully involved and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spentexploring tangential areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well asliterature and the arts; all of which were extremely productive in regard to the symbols and processes of the humanpsyche, found in dreams and other entrees to the unconscious.He considered the process of individuation necessary for a person to become whole. This is a psychological processof integrating the opposites including the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining their relativeautonomy.
Individuation was the central concept of analytical psychology.
Jungian ideas are routinely discussed in part by curriculum of introductory psychology course offerings with mostmajor universities, and although rarely covered by higher-level course work, his ideas are discussed further in abroad range of humanities. Many pioneering psychological concepts were originally proposed by Jung, including theArchetype, the Collective Unconscious, the Complex, and synchronicity. A popular psychometric instrument, theMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), has been principally developed from Jung's theories.
Carl Jung2
Early years
Carl Jung was born Karle Gustav II Jung
in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, as the fourth but onlysurviving child of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk. Emilie Preiswerk was the youngest child of SamuelPreiswerk, Paul Achilles Jung's professor of Hebrew. His father was a poor rural pastor in the Swiss ReformedChurch, while his mother came from a wealthy and established Swiss family.When Jung was six months old his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish inLaufen. Meanwhile, thetension between his parents was growing. An eccentric and depressed woman, Emilie Jung spent much of the time inher own separate bedroom, enthralled by the spirits that she said visited her at night.
Jung had a better relationshipwith his father because he thought him to be predictable and thought his mother to be very problematic. Althoughduring the day he also saw her as predictable, at night he felt some frightening influences from her room. At night hismother became strange and mysterious. Jung claimed that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figurecoming from her room, with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body.
His mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for anunknownphysical ailment. YoungCarl Jung was taken by his father to live with Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but was later brought back tothe pastor's residence. Emilie's continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her son's attitudetowards women
one of "innate unreliability," a view that he later called the "handicap I started off with"
andthat resulted in his sometimes patriarchal views of women.
After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jungrequested a transfer and was called to Kleinhüningen in 1879. The relocation brought Emilie Jung in closer contactto her family and lifted her melancholy and despondent mood.A solitary and introverted child, Jung was convinced from childhood that he had two personalities
a modernSwiss citizen and a personality more at home in the eighteenth century.
"Personality Number 1," as he termed it,was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time, while "Personality Number 2" was a dignified, authoritative andinfluential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents he was rather disappointed in his father'sacademic approach to faith.A number of childhoodmemories had made a life-long impression on him. As a boy he carved a tiny mannequin intothe end of the wooden ruler from his pupil's pencil case and placed it inside the case. He then added a stone which hehad painted into upper and lower halves and hid the case in the attic. Periodically he would come back to themannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on themin his own secret language.
Thisceremonial act, he later reflected, brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. In later years he discovered thatsimilarities existed in this memory and the totems of native peoples like the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim,or the
of Australia. This, he concluded, was an unconscious ritual that he did not question or understand atthe time, but which was practiced in a strikingly similar way in faraway locations that he as a young boy had no wayof consciously knowing about.
His findings on psychological archetypes and the collective unconscious wereinspired in part by these experiences.Shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, at the age of twelve, he waspushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he was for a moment unconscious (Jung later recognized that theincident was his fault, indirectly). A thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school anymore."
From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home forthe next six months until he overheard his father speaking worriedly to a visitor of his future ability to supporthimself, as they suspected he had epilepsy. With little money in the family, this brought the boy to reality and herealized the need for academic excellence. He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latingrammar. He fainted three times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung laterrecalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is."
Jung had no plans to study psychiatry, because it was held in contempt in those days. But as he started studying hispsychiatric textbook, he became very excited when he read that psychoses are personality diseases. Immediately heunderstood this was the field that interested him the most. It combined both biological and spiritual facts and this
Carl Jung3was what he was searching for.
In 1895, Jung studied medicine at the University of Basel. In 1900, he worked in the Burghölzli,a psychiatrichospital in Zurich, with Eugen Bleuler. His dissertation, published in 1903, was titled "On the Psychology andPathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena." In1906, he published
and later sent a copyof this book to Sigmund Freud, after which a close friendship between these two men followed for some six years(see section on Relationship with Freud). In 1912 Jung published
Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido
(known inEnglish as
Psychology of the Unconscious
) resulting in a theoretical divergence between him and Freud andconsequently a break in their friendship, both stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong.After this falling-out, Jung went through a pivotal and difficult psychological transformation, which was exacerbatedby news of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's experience a "creative illness" and compared it toFreud's period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.During World War I Jung was drafted as an army doctor and soon made commandant of an internment camp forBritish officers and soldiers. (Swiss neutrality obliged the Swiss to intern personnel from either side of the conflictwho crossed their frontier to evade capture.) Jung worked to improve the conditions for these soldiers stranded inneutral territory; he encouraged them to attend university courses.
Later life
In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, who came from a wealthy family in Switzerland. They had fivechildren: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955, but he hadmore-or-less open relationships with other women. The most well-known women with whom Jung is believed tohave had extramarital relationships were patient and friend Sabina Spielrein
and Toni Wolff.
Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including
Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen inthe Skies
, which analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reportedobservations of UFOs.
He also enjoyed a friendship with an English Roman Catholic priest, Father Victor White,who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial
Answer to Job
Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Ourmain task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential tobecome the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism,Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation, which he calledindividuation, is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet theDivine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.
In 1944 Jung published
Psychology and Alchemy,
where he analyzed the alchemical symbols and showed a directrelationship to the psychoanalytical process. He argued that the alchemical process was the transformation of theimpure soul (lead) to perfected soul (gold), and a metaphor for the individuation process.
Jung died in 1961 at Küsnacht, after a short illness.
Relationship with Freud
Jung was thirty when he sent his
Studies in Word Association
to Sigmund Freud in Vienna in 1906. The two menmet for the first time the following year, and Jung recalled the discussion between himself and Freud asinterminable. They talked, he remembered, for thirteen hours, virtually without stopping'.
Six months later, thethen 50-year-old Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zurich, which marked the beginningof an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six years and ended in May 1910. At this time Jungresigned as the chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association, where he had been elected with Freud'ssupport.

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