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DAILY 03.03.11

DAILY 03.03.11

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Albert Bandura, from rural roots toleading social psychologist
Women one win awayfrom Pac-10 perfection
When it comes to crime, one word may beenough to sway people’s perceptions.This finding came from the Stanford study“Metaphors We Think With: The Role of Metaphor in Reasoning,”published in the Feb.23 edition of PloS ONE.The study shows thatpeople are more likely to support harsher lawsand increased jailing of offenders when toldcrime is a “beast” preying on a community.When crime is described as a “virus”infecting acity,however,people are more likely to proposesocial reform.First-year psychology graduate student PaulThibodeau,the study’s lead author,said the re-sults demonstrate the powerful influence of metaphor in shaping solutions to complexproblems.“Things like crime and other difficult socialissues are very abstract and complicated,” hesaid. “It’s hard to think clearly about how tosolve the issue.Metaphors about crime are a lit-tle easier to talk about.When we use metaphorsfor crime,we import structures from other do-mains.”In a series of five experiments, participantswere given one of two versions of a report onrising crime rates in the fictional city of Addi-son. The versions framed crime either as a“beast”or a “virus”but offered identical statis-tics detailing the rise. Participants were thenasked to propose solutions to the crime.Researchers found that the subjects’ re-sponses varied depending on the metaphorused. In one study, 71 percent of subjects pro-posed more law enforcement when told crimewas a “beast,compared to 54 percent of sub-jects who did so after reading crime was a“virus.”When asked to cite the most influential partof the report,only 15 of the 485 participants se-lected the metaphor;the majority said the sta-tistics held the most sway in determining theirpolicy decisions.Psychology assistant professor LeraBoroditsky, who co-authored the study, saidthese findings show the extent to which peopleunderestimate the role of language in decision-
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A n  I n d e p e n d e n t  P u b l i c a t i o n
The Stanford Daily
Case broughtagainst ASSUROTC bill
FAO to remainunaffected by Pell Grant cuts
SSQL presidents petition questionsconstitutionality ofadvisory bill
Alok Vaid-Menon ‘13, president of Stanford Stu-dents for Queer Liberation (SSQL),filed a petition tobring a case against the ASSU with the Constitution-al Council, which was approved this week. Constitu-tional Council case W2011-1,Vaid-Menon v.Cardona,will determine the constitutionality of a bill passed bythe Undergraduate Senate to place an “advisory ref-erendum” question on the spring elections ballot,which is intended to gauge student opinion regardingROTC.The Constitutional Council is the judicial branchof the ASSU, but Vaid-Menon’s case will be the firstthe body has heard in over one year. However, theSenate recently passed a bill redefining some of theroles of the Constitutional Council and of the solici-tors general so that both can become more activebodies.According to Constitutional Council Chair SamirSiddhanti ‘12, before the Council’s Rules of Orderwere passed two weeks ago,“there was no frameworkfor how to accept or try to a case.”Siddhanti said that Vaid-Menon’s petition wasfiled late Sunday evening,and both parties were noti-fied by Tuesday.He said that given the new rules,thefive-member Council hopes to set a precedent by hav-ing a quick turnaround for trials.“This is the very first trial we’ve gotten since the
SERENITY NGUYEN/The Stanford Daily
THURSDAY Volume 239
March 3, 2011 Issue 25
Crime metaphors sway public opinion
Admins will rely on other sources tocover gaps from lower gov’t funds
Federal funding for Pell Grants may de-crease significantly if the Senate also passesthe H.R.1 bill recently passed by the House of Representatives. Stanford’s Financial AidOffice is confident that these proposed cuts,if enacted,would have a limited impact on theUniversity’s need-based financial aid policy.The Pell Grant program helps low- to mid-dle-income undergraduates pay for collegeand also provides funding for working low-in-come adults who want to return to school tospecialize in certain interests and skills.Under the proposed H.R.1 bill, the PellGrant program could face a 24 percent reduc-tion, totaling $5.7 billion, which leaves eachstudent with $4,015 instead of $4,860 in grantmoney.According to the Center on Budget Poli-cies and Priorities (CBPP),one of the coun-try’s leading policy organizations on legisla-tion affecting low-income families, H.R.1’sstipulations could be detrimental to the de-mographic they affect.The Pell Grant is unique in that it consistsof two different types of funding,mandatoryand discretionary.The former is a legal guar-antee that each student will receive $690 an-nually to help finance his or her education.But the bulk of Pell Grants are funded by dis-cretionary means; an annual appropriationbill essentially allows the government tospend money to support these grants.Cuts are,for the most part,directed at thelatter.However,the CBPP claims that H.R.1threatens to eliminate the mandatory compo-nent altogether by 2014.“Proponents of cuts in assistance to lower-income individuals and families often claimthat America should strive to achieve equali-ty in opportunities rather than equality inoutcomes,” according to the CBPP website.“Cuts in programs like this, which help pro-vide improved opportunities for success inschool and work to otherwise-qualified dis-advantaged young people, make a mockeryof such claims.”According to CBPP research,downsizingthe discretionary awards could lead to $64 bil-lion in cuts in mandatory funding for PellGrants in the next 10 years.Representatives for the CBPP declined tocomment to The Daily on the issue.Stanford’s director of financial aid,KarenCooper,does not believe the decision on PellGrants will have a significant effect on theUniversity’s financial aid policies.“The Pell Grant program is very helpful tous and makes a difference in our overallbudget,” Cooper said. “If it’s a short-termchange,we should be able to absorb that withinstitutional funds.. .in the long run we mayneed to expect a little bit more of all of ourstudents before we take in Stanford scholar-ship funds.”Each Stanford student’s total financial aidaward is determined by calculating both par-ent and student contributions as well asawards and scholarships that make up the dif-ference.Cooper indicated that cuts to the PellGrant program might require increased stu-dent loans.Still,Cooper remains optimistic.“For the last four or five years,we’ve beenexpanding our financial aid pool,even during
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KYLE ANDERSON/The Stanford Daily
Stanford students gathered for a candlelight vigil, sponsored by the Muslim StudentAwareness Network, in the Old Union Courtyard last night to honor thousands of menand women fighting for their freedom in Libya and the Middle East.
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Scientists at the School of Medicinehave created an animal model of a rareand fatal brain tumor affecting youngchildren. This model is the first of itskind and will allow scientists to betterstudy Diffuse Intrinsic PontineGlioma (DIGP),a disease that is fatalfor nearly all children who are diag-nosed, according to a paper publishedin the Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences.Led by pediatric neurologistMichelle Monje, the team found thatthese models could be made by inject-ing human DIGP cells,donated by theparents of deceased patients, directlyinto mice. Using this model, the teamfound new molecular signals thatprompt the cancer to grow.“In a mouse,that population of cellsis responsive to the Hedgehog path-way, a signaling pathway important innormal development and many formsof cancer,Monje said.“We tested therole [of the pathway] by regulating itgenetically,and in mice with regulatedpathways, [ . . . ] cells didn’t look asstrange.”These signals could also one dayhold the key to curing the cancer byacting as signals for anti-tumor drugs.Monje and her team said they plannedto pursue potential cures.The animal model represents someof the biggest advances for this partic-ular disease, where treatment ad-vances have been stagnant for 35years,Monje said.Part of the problem is the lack of 
Study finds new breakthrough for lethal brain tumor
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ANASTASIA YEE/The Stanford Daily
Thursday,March 3,2011
The Stanford Daily
Winter SNAPS
JIN ZHU/The Stanford Daily
Bellydancers, jugglers and playwrights, oh my! It was a night of food, drinks and merriment at Sigma Nu as art-lovers stopped to look and listen at thisyear’s Winter SNAPS, where fellow students showcased their musical, poetic and overall artistic talent.
new group was brought in,”he said,“but that’s what we would like todo, especially given the time sensi-tive nature of this case.ASSU President Angelina Car-dona ‘11 authored the bill to placean “advisory referendum”questionon the general elections ballot ask-ing student opinion on the poten-tial for ROTC to return to campus.Both the Senate and the GraduateStudent Council voted to pass thebill at the beginning of February.At the time, Cardona said thatVaid-Menon was consulted on thedrafting of the language of the bill sothat it could be presented with “neu-tral language.” In an interview withThe Daily,Vaid-Menon said that de-spite consultation, he was “frustrat-ed by the passing of the bill.”“In no way did I ever give mycomplete acceptance of this bill,”he said.“This is a way for me to ad-dress my concerns.”For Vaid-Menon,asking for stu-dent opinion by voting on supportfor the ROTC issue is like “puttingcivil rights on the ballot box.”Vaid-Menon and SSQL opposethe return of ROTC to Stanfordbecause it does not allow transgen-der students to participate.“It frames ROTC as a questionand not as a policy,” he said. “TheUniversity is very firm in its non-discrimination policy, which in-cludes gender identity. It seemsgenerally silly to have a questionthat violates this University policy.”Siddhanti said that the evidencerequired to prove constitutionalityof an ASSU bill or action variesfrom case to case.“Most of the arguments are[ASSU] constitutionally based,andthe petitioner argues why or whynot there’s a violation,and in somecases people can bring witnesses,”he said.“It’s pretty much anythingallowed in real court.”“There’s also a segment forfriends of the court to be heard,”Siddhanti added. “We want tomake the process much more trans-parent and open to the public.”Cardona said that she was “notsurprised” to hear about the case.She said that she recommended theConstitutional Council as an av-enue for Vaid-Menon to explorewhen he initially voiced concernsover the bill.“When I showed [Vaid-Menon]the original draft, he had concernsabout the bill in and of itself,Car-dona said.“Situations like this is why theConstitutional Council exists and soI think that the trial will be good andthe process will be an educationalone for everyone,she added.Vaid-Menon argues that it is theresponsibility of the ASSU to up-hold University policies in additionto its own, including the non-dis-crimination policy.“There’s this rhetoric for its stillokay for people to vote and have asay on civil rights of other people,”he said. “We need to consider theethics of voting on this bill.”Although Vaid-Menon filed thepetition as an individual, he saidthat his effort to aid SSQL’s oppo-sition to ROTC means that his ac-tions can be interpreted as on be-half of the group.“I think, from my perspective,the distinguishing factor that does-n’t make the bill unconstitutional isthat it’s a non-binding referendum,equitable to other avenues of inputthat the ad hoc committee has wel-comed,”Cardona said.“That’s def-initely within my bounds as presi-dent to have proposed and I stillsupport [the bill].”“That being said, I do under-stand where [Vaid-Menon] is com-ing from and want to do everythingI can to support and represent thetransgender community as well.”Both Vaid-Menon and Cardonarecognize that ultimately, the deci-sion to recognize ROTC will bemade by the Faculty Senate afterreceiving the report from the adhoc committee in May.“I don’t see this as that big of adeal, to be honest, because at theend of the day, people understandthat the students themselves aren’tmaking this decision,”Vaid-Menonsaid.“This is much more of a sym-bolic campaign, and it’s time forstudents to hold the University ac-countable.”“I hope the rhetoric behind thiscase doesn’t dwindle down toROTC:should it return or should itnot, because that’s not what thiscase is about,” Cardona said.“Thequestion this case is focusing on iswhether or not posing an advisoryquestion to the campus communityis constitutional or not.”The trial will be next Wednes-day,March 9,at 8 p.m.and open tothe public.The location has not yetbeen determined.
Contact Kate Abbott at kmabbott @stanford.edu.
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making.“These studies show the power of language in framing our decisions,especially in cases where we don’trealize it,” she said. “We all like tothink we make rational decisions,but even a single word can bring awhole knowledge structure thatguides our reasoning.”The study also accounted for po-litical party affiliation,with Republi-cans being 10 percent more likelythan Democrats to suggest enforce-ment-based solutions. Subjects whoread that crime was a “beast” wereabout 20 percent more likely to sup-port such solutions,regardless of af-filiation.Law professor Robert Weisbergsaid the study reveals how crime rhet-oric itself has become a metaphor forpolitical and social unease.“Crime enters political discoursein a way where it substitutes forother issues,” he said. “It’s a goodmetaphoric issue for people express-ing their anger or frustration at otherthings.”Since crime is an inherentlyloaded topic,policy makers and pub-lic officials should ensure the lan-guage used to describe it does notunduly inflame passions, Weisbergsaid.“Colorful language is not alwaysaccurate,he said.“We have a hugeapparatus of criminal justice in theUnited States and we want to see if itis solving problems efficiently. It isnot a military machine or somethingout of a sci-fi movie . . . neutralizingthe language with which crime is dis-cussed would be a good thing.”Thibodeau cautions, however,that language is just one of many fac-tors that influence people’s opinionson crime and other issues.“It worked pretty well when wegave people a report on crime andthey didn’t have background con-text,”he said.“In the real world,peo-ple have more information. Allthings being equal,subtle metaphor-ic clues can help us structure how wethink about abstract and complex is-sues.”
Contact Samantha McGirr at smcgirr @stanford.edu.
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available samples.“The tumor is not biopsied, asdiagnosis can be made radiologi-cally (by MRI) and biopsy is dan-gerous because of the tumor loca-tion,wrote senior authorPhilip Beachy, professor of devel-opmental biology, in an e-mail toThe Daily.Although Monje declined togive names,she said other researchinstitutions have attempted to cre-ate samples as well.Stanford,how-ever, is the first in the world toachieve any success.DIPG is particularly difficult totreat because the cancerous cellsentwine themselves with healthycells in the brain stem. Since thebrain stem is necessary for thebody’s survival, surgery is not anoption.As a result, Monje’s findings“give a lot of hope,” said DanahJewett, whose late son, Dylan, wasone of the earliest donors toMonje’s research in January 2009.“For 35 years,parents were toldthat their child was going to die,”Jewett said.“These children need it so badlyand their families need it so badly,”she added.DIPG, which primarily affectschildren ages five through nine, isone of the more common pediatrictumors,Monje said.It affects up to400 children annually in the U.S.Less than 1 percent of victims livethrough the first five years once thecancer has set.Six other families have followedin the Jewett’s footsteps and decid-ed to donate their tumor cells,Monje said.Her team has also been contact-ed by a number of other re-searchers interested in furtherstudying the disease.For their part, Beachy said thatthe team has two future studieslined up:the first on the new tumormodel to determine what kinds of therapies might be useful, and an-other to understand the possiblecell of origin and changes in nor-mal cell function that cause the tu-mors.Several pharmaceutical compa-nies are also working to developdrugs that will treat this cancer.Monje’s new mouse models willtest some of the drugs.The research was funded in partby the National Institutes of Health, the National Brain TumorFoundation and the HowardHughes Medical Institute.
Ivy Nguyen contributed to this re-port.Contact Cassandra Feliciano at ccfe-lici@stanford.edu.
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the economic recession,” she said.“Even though endowment has re-duced, the University remains com-mitted to need-based financial aid.Money gets taken away from otherthings to keep our financial aid pro-gram whole.”Cooper indicated that programslike The Stanford Fund (TSF) havebeen helpful in bridging financial aidgaps. In the past, about half of themoney from TSF has gone to provid-ing scholarships.This year, the num-ber increased to 75 percent due to adecline in endowment funds.“Stanford re-prioritizes fundingto make sure the University meetsthe expectations of its students,”Cooper said.
Contact Marianne LeVine at mlevine2@stanford.edu.
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ANASTASIA YEE/The Stanford Daily
The Stanford Daily
Thursday,March 3,2011
How serendipity flung Albert Bandura into thespotlight as a leading social psychologist
ith twinkling eyesand a gently wrin-kled face in a per-petual half-smile,Albert Banduralooks every inch the quintessentialkindly grandfather, from the mutedburgundy sweater to the soft lull of his voice.Bandura, a man of many talents,has had a long and illustrious aca-demic career spanning over sixdecades. The David Starr JordanProfessor Emeritus of Social Sci-ence in Psychology, Bandura hascontributed immensely to the fieldof social psychology, and is the fa-ther behind the theory of self-effica-cy and social learning theory.Ranked as the most cited living psy-chologist in the world, Bandura hasauthored seven books to date andhas written over 180 articles.Bandura was born and raised inMundare,a small hamlet in northernAlberta, Canada with a populationof approximately 400 people,mostlyimmigrants from Poland andUkraine. His elementary and sec-ondary school years at the onlyschool in town were “very limited ineducation resources,” recalled Ban-dura. Usually, limited educationalresources would be seen as a hin-drance, but Bandura looks back onhis schooldays as an opportunity forself-learning,a major skill that is thecenter of his social learning theory.“We pilfered a teacher’strigonometry book,so that we couldstudy it ourselves,” Bandura said.“The students had to take charge of their own education.”Bandura’s early resolve forscholastic success was largely due tohis upbringing because his parents,though they received no formal edu-cation, placed enormous emphasison academic development.“My mother told me I could tillthe land,play pool and drink myself to oblivion,” Bandura said. “Or Icould get an education.”“Needless to say, I chose the lat-ter,” Bandura added with a light-hearted chuckle.Bandura’s summers were spentpicking up carpentry, a skill set thatwould later help pay for his collegeeducation.One memorable summerafter high school graduation, Ban-dura ventured farther north, wherehe worked at Whitehorse in theYukon filling in holes along theAlaskan highway.Bandura recalled the shock hereceived almost immediately uponhis arrival.“I pulled up to the base camp,and the first thing I saw was an am-bulance. I asked someone if therehad been an accident, and someonetold me, ‘No, that’s our cook. Hedrank all of the lemon extract for thealcohol,so we have to take him in toget his stomach pumped out.’”The robust, quirky life of theworkers at Whitehorse was an excit-ing time for Bandura, who saw theYukon tundra as a backdrop for “theblossoming of the psychopathology
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Courtesy of Albert Bandura

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