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Plugin Salt Gradient

Plugin Salt Gradient

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Published by sandepkv83
its about solar pond
its about solar pond

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Published by: sandepkv83 on Mar 03, 2011
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03/03/2011

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 1
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A SALT GRADIENT NON-CONVECTIVESOLAR PONDD.K. Dixit
Department of Mechanical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur – 440 011 
 Abstract
 Design and simulation of a salt-gradient non-convective solar pond has been carriedout for conditions prevailing at Nagpur. The computations have been carried out tofind the theoretical temperature distribution in the non-convective zone of the solar pond. The surface temperature of the pond is assumed to be equal to the ambient air temperature. Various parameters are analyzed by assuming the steady-state conditionof the solar pond. 
 Keywords
 Solar Energy; Solar Pond; Large Area Solar Collector; Salt-Gradient Pond; Designand Simulation. 
 Introduction
 The term ‘solar pond’ connotes different concepts, in all of which water is heated bythe absorption of solar radiation and serve as a thermal storage medium for thecollected energy. As the name suggests, the salt gradient solar pond is one in which asalinity gradient is established. More specifically, over some range in depth theconcentration of salt dissolved in the water (salinity) increases with depth. A saltgradient solar pond is a body of water that typically has three regions (from top tobottom) viz. surface zone, gradient zone and lower zone. The lower zone is ahomogeneous, concentrated salt solution that can be either convecting or temperaturestratified. Above it is the non-convective gradient zone constituting a thermallyinsulating layer that contains a salinity gradient such that water closer to the surface isalways less salty than the water below it. The surface zone is a homogeneous layer of low salinity brine or fresh water. If the salinity gradient is large enough, there is noconvection in the gradient zone even when heat is absorbed in the lower zone and onthe bottom, because the hotter, saltier water at the bottom of the gradient remainsdenser than the colder, less salty water above it. As water is transparent to visible light but opaque to infrared radiation, the energy inthe form of sunlight that reaches the lower zone and is absorbed there can escape onlyvia conduction. The thermal conductivity of water is moderately low, and if thegradient zone has substantial thickness, heat escapes upwards from the lower zone
 
 2very slowly. This makes the solar pond both a thermal collector and a long-termstorage device. Performance investigations on a small experimental solar pond were carried outearlier (Dixit
et al 
, 1978). A solar pond of 100 m
2
area at Nagpur in central India isdesigned and simulated. The main aim in the present paper is to present thetheoretical temperature distribution in the non-convective zone of the solar pond. 
 Simulation Procedure
 Assumptions Since the variation in the solar pond occurs very slowly compared to those of thesurrounding environmental conditions, lumped parameter models are assumed for theupper convective zone (UCZ), the non-convective zone (NCZ) and the storage zone.The following assumptions are used in the mathematical model developed to simulatethe solar pond : 1.
 
The pond consists of three zones, the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone.2.
 
The temperature and density gradients in the non-convective zone areassumed to be linear.3.
 
The temperature and density gradients in the upper convective zone and in thestorage zone are uniform and perfectly mixed.4.
 
The edges of the solar pond are vertical.5.
 
The heat exchange through the side edges is negligible.6.
 
The surface zone thickness is 0.3 m and the thickness of non-convective zoneis 0.487 m. Calculation of Maximum Storage and Surface Zone Temperatures The equation for the annual temperature variation in a solar pond (Rabl and Nielson,1975) is  Where
Kj
cos
1
=
 Tu = Surface zone temperature in (K)Ta = Ambient zone temperature for the mean day of the month at the derived location(K)t = Transmissivity based on reflection and refraction at the air-water interfaceHg = Monthly average global radiationK = Thermal conductivity of water = 0.648 W/m K at 50°C (average)r = angle of refraction)TaTu(1h)e1( KjcosAjtrHgTaTu
1x. 41j
1j
=
=
 
 3h1 = Heat transfer coefficient between upper water column and ambient air = 5.7 + 3.8 V
;V
(average wind velocity)= 3.885 m/sKj = extinction coefficientx1 = Depth of NCZ-UCZ interface = 0.3mThe value of 
Hg 
is calculated for every month by the equation:
HoHg 
=a+b(S/Smax)Where
Ho
= Monthly average of daily extra-terrestrial radiation falling on thehorizontal surface at the location under consideration.A, b = constants depending on the location.S = Monthly average of the sunshine hours per day at the location = 9.5 h (assumed)Smax = Monthly average of the maximum possible sunshine hours per day at thelocation.The value of r i.e. the angle of refraction is calculated for every hour of the mean dayand was assumed to be constant for that hour.Sin(i)/sin (r) = 1.33where 1.33 is the refractive index of water.Hence, r = sin
-1
[sin i/1.33]The value of i is given ascos i = sin
Φ
sin
δ
+ cos
Φ
cos
δ
cos
ω
 Hence,
Φ
= Latitude of location = 21.1° for Nagpur 
δ
= Declination angle
ω
= Hour angle. The computed monthly average values of solar isolation and global radiation aregraphically depicted in
Fig. 1. Figure 2
illustrates the variation of monthly averagevalues of air dry bulb temperature observed and the predicted values of the surfacezone temperature over the year. Similarly the storage zone temperature can be calculated using the followingequation. 
( )
0}1(/cos
341
>=
Σ
=
QsbQst eKjAjHg tr TuTs
Kjxj
 Where, x3 = 1.287 m [pond depth]Qst = heat loss to the top from the storage zone. =
( )( )
TuTs1x2x kb
 Kb = thermal conductivity of brine solution.Qsb = heat exchange rate between the storage zone and the ground = UbAb(Ts-Tg)Where Tg = 22°C (Assumed) and Ub = 1 W/m
2
The monthly average values of the predicted storage zone temperature are presentedin
Fig.3
.  

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