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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgements
ABSTRACT
NOMENCLATURE
Contents
LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 Resources and Need for Water Desalination
Figure 1 Change in the world population since 1823 and until 2050
1.2 Composition of sea water
1.3 Definition and Classification of Industrial Desalination Processes
Figure 2 Definition of desalination processes
Figure 3 Thermal and Membrane Desalination Process
2.1 Historical Background:-
2.2 Review of Market Status for Desalination Processes:-
2.3 Review of Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Desalination Methods :
2.3.1.Multi-Stage Flash Distillation
2.3.2.Multiple-Effect Distillation
2.3.3.Vapor Compression Distillation
2.3.4.Electrodialysis/ Electrodialysis Reversal
2.4.1 Bine Disposal
2.4.2.Impingement and entrainment
2.4.3.Health Concerns :
2.4.4.Increased Energy Use :
2.4.5.Other Impacts :
3.2 Elements of Membrane Separation:
4.1.Definition of Reverse osmosis:
Figure 7 Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis
4.2 Performance Parameters:
4.2.1 Osmotic and Operating Pressure:
4.2.2 Salt Rejection:
4.2.3 Permeate Recovery:
4.3 RO Membranes:
4.3.1 Cellulose Acetate Membranes:
4.3.2 Composite Polyamide Membranes:
4.4 Membrane Modules
4.4.1 Hollow Fine Fiber :
4.4.2 Spiral Wound:-
Figure 8 Hollow fibre membrane modules (a)Assembly (b)Fiber dimensions
4.5 RO Systems :
4.6 Pre-treatment Processes in RO
4.6.1 Testing Methods
4.6.2 Suspended Solids and Silt Reduction
4.6.3 Fouling and Scale Control
4.6.4 Bio-fouling in RO
4.6.5 Membrane Cleaning
4.6.6 Membrane Storage
5.1 Permeator Mass and Salt Balances:
5.2 Water Transport :
5.3 Salt Transport:
5.4 Semi-Empirical Models
5.6.1Calculation of permeate recovery
5.6.2 Caculation of salt rejection (SR)
5.7 Concentration Polarization
6.1 Factors Affecting Product Cost
6.2Elements of Economic Calculations
6.2.1Direct Capital Cost
6.2.2Indirect Capital Cost
6.2.3Operating Cost
6.3Cost Evaluation
6.4 Summary of Cost estimation of different desalination processes
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES:-
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desalination- RO- 2010

desalination- RO- 2010

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Published by Shainky Govil

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Published by: Shainky Govil on Mar 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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