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Fractures Hand Outs3 - NCM60

Fractures Hand Outs3 - NCM60

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Published by: Zcanica_Venice_9388 on Mar 03, 2011
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02/01/2013

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1
Musculoskeletal disorders
FRACTURES:
A traumatic injury interrupting bone continuity
Types: 
1.
Closed, simple, uncomplicated fractures
– do not cause break in the skin
2.
Open, compound, complicated fractures
– involve trauma to surrounding tissue and a break in theskin
3.
Incomplete fractures – 
partial cross-sectional breaks with incomplete bone disruption
4.
Complete fractures – 
are complete cross-sectional breaks severing the periosteum
Patterns of Fracture 
5.
Comminuted fractures – 
produce several breaks of the bone, producing splinter fragments
6.
Spiral (torsion) fractures – 
involve a fracture twisting around the shaft of the bone
7.
Transverse fractures – 
occur straight across the bone
8.
Oblique fractures – 
occur at an angle across the bone (less than a transverse)
Ma. Elena I. Momongan, R.N. March 3, 2011
 
2
Fracture types (1)
Etiology:
1. Crushing force or direct blow2. Sudden twisting motion3. Extremely forceful muscle contraction
Potential Complications
a.
Fat embolism syndrome
 
– release of fat globules from the bone marrow into thecirculation after fracture
develops within 24-72 hours after fracture
common in long bones, pelvis, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, clavicle
ARDS – results from deposition of embolic fat in the pulmonary circulation
Ma. Elena I. Momongan, R.N. March 3, 2011
 
3b.
Compartment syndrome
 
a condition involving increased pressure and constriction of nerves and vessels within an anatomic compartment leads to reduce capillary bloodperfusion
Fasciotomy
: 
incision of the skin into the fascia of the muscle compartment allows for tissue expansion and restores blood flow by relieving pressure on microcirculation
c. Delayed union, Nonunion (non-healing 4-6 months after initial injury), and fibrous unionof the fracture sided. Arterial damage during treatmente. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)f. Cast syndromeg. Infection and possibly sepsish. Hemorrhage, possibly leading to shock Implementation
Ma. Elena I. Momongan, R.N. March 3, 2011

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