70 Yasuo Miyagi
had conducted the characteristic test and utilizationstudy of ceramics including silicon nitride and siliconcarbide unti1 that time. After that time, it has conductedvarious kinds of experin#1ental research using asnff1al1-sized diesel engine equipped with ceramiccomponents up to the present. It is now conductingresearches on high temperature combustion chambersusing ceramics and a reduction in harmffi1 emissionsincluding NOx by using water emulsified fuels
2. Merits of the Utilization of Ceramics
The energy utilization rates of marine dieselengines are exceptionally good and their thermalefficiencies exceed 50%. Consequent1y, the merits of the utilization of ceramics for marine engines differfrom those for automobile engines. The fo11owing areconsidered merits that can be expected by utilizingceramics.
3. Subjects to be Studied when utilizingCeramics for Marine Use 3.1 Reliability
Rliability is the most important property whenutilizing ceramics for marine diesel engines. Theevaluation of the reliability of ceramics is not high ingeneral. It is thought that this low evaluation comesfrom images such as insufficient toughness and greatstrength dispersion. For marine use, it is intended to useceramics with excellent high temperature strength,corrosion resistance and wear resistance for parts forwhich these properties of metallic materials areinsufficient. Consequently, it is necessary tosufficiently investigate the properties of ceramics to beused. It is essential to develop ceramic componentswith high temperature strength including fatiguestrength and creep strength and with small strengthdispersion. It is also necessary to know corrosionresistance of ceramics not only in an oxidationatmosphere but also against molten salts such asvanadium, sodium, sulfur, calsium and magnesiumincluded in fuel oil, 1ubricating oil and sea water.Friction and wear properties are also important in thecase where ceramics are used for components havingsliding surfaces such as cylinder sleeves and pistonrings.
3.2 Combustion Characteristic
In the case where ceramic components withthermal insulation ability are used around thecombustion chamber in order to reduce cooling loss,combustion condition changes, since combustionchamber wall and combustion gas temperatures becomehigh. Attention must be given to the mixture of fuel oilwith air and fuel injection conditions. It is necessary toknow combustion characteristics of various kinds of fuel,since NOx increases and measures to lowerenvironmenta1 pollution are needed.
3.3 Improvement in Efficiency
It is necessary to add equipment to recover energyin exhaust gas ill the case where cooling loss isdecreased and exhaust gas temperature is raised.Turbo-compound systems and exhaust gas economizersthat have already been on the market for marine use maybe usefu1. However, the redesigning and costreduction of systems are considered necessary, sinceexhaust gas temperature becomes higher.
3.4 Machinability and Cost
Ceramics are made by sintering and their hardnessis generally high. Consequently, it is incommensurablydifficult to machine them into necessary dimensions incomparison with metal. It is necessary to get sinteredproducts with dimensions close to final dimensions by.injection molding. It is not too much to say that areduction in machining costs holds the key to putceramic products in practical use. Since it is difficult toproduce large-sized components from ceramics becausethey are sintered products, ideas must therefore be takeninto design.
3.5 Nondestructive Inspection
Ceramic products can be destroyed even by defectsof 10
m or less which are smaller by two figures thanthose in case of metallic products. Advance screening,nondestructive inspection in particular, is therefore veryimportant. Since no ultrasonic flaw detector in practicaluse which can detect defects down to this size isavailable at the present, research in the future isexpected.
4. Present States of Several Researches onCeramics in Ship Research Institute 4.1 Combustion of Water Emulsified Fuels onCeramic Engines
This research aims at realizing high-performanceand low-po11ution diesel engines. In order to achievethis aim, the following measures are taken.The combustion chamber of a diesel engine iscovered with ceramics having thermal insulution abilityin
(2) Bulletin of the M.E.S.J., Vo1. 22, No.2