: A postulated particle, from a higher dimen-sional domain than spacetime (so it does not have rela-tivity theory constraints) that can travel both faster andslower than the velocity of electromagnetic (EM) light.It acts as the
between the electric particle sub-stance of our normal level of physical reality and the mag-netic, information wave substance of this second level of physical reality.5.
D-space and R-space
: Tiller has proposed that we replaceour present spacetime RF for viewing the manifold ex-pressions of nature with a duplex RF for physical realityimbedded in three higher dimensional domains for thelarger reality. This duplex RF consists of two, four-di-mensional, reciprocal subspaces, one of which is space-time. The spacetime-subspace is the RF for electric par-ticles, atoms, and molecules and is labeled direct spaceor D-space, whereas the reciprocal-subspace is the RF formagnetic information wave substance and is labeled rec-iprocal space or R-space.6.
: The concept of a gauge was introducedin 1918 by Herman Weyl to mean a standard of lengthwhereby the gravitational force could be formulated interms of the curvature of space and the various geome-tries involved. In general, gauge theories were con-structed to relate the properties of the four known fun-damental forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, thelong-range nuclear force, and the short-range nuclearforce) to the various symmetries of nature.7.
EM Gauge Symmetry
: The most familiar symmetries weknow of are spatial or geometric in appearance, like thehexagonal symmetry of a snowflake. An invariance inthe snowflake pattern occurs when it is rotated by 60°,so it is called six-fold symmetric (360°/6). In general, thestate of this type of symmetry can be defined as an
of pattern that is observed when some uniquetransformation is applied to it (e.g., the 60°rotation of asnowflake or a 90°rotation of a square).One example of a nongeometric symmetry is the chargesymmetry of EM. For the case of a collection of electricdipoles or magnetic dipoles, if the individual charges aresuddenly reversed in sign, the
of the ensemble isunchanged so the electric forces or the magnetic forces re-main unchanged, they are invariant to this type of trans-formation and is a
symmetry (happening every-where at once). For a
symmetry to be observed, thisbehavior must remain invariant even when the transfor-mation takes place at each separate point of spacetime.When this occurs, something new must be added and thatnew thing is a new force. The theory of electric and mag-netic fields was the first gauge theory with local symme-try and thus the EM force came into being.Maxwell’s theory of EM is a classic one, but a relatedsymmetry can be demonstrated in quantum field theory.In the quantum theory of electrons, a change in the elec-tric potential entails a change in the
of the elec-tron wave, which is inaccessible to direct measurement,so any phase angle can be added to or subtracted fromthe electron field and the results of all experiments willremain invariant. This electron phase angle is thus la-beled an inner space symmetry variable.8.
U(1) and SU(2) Gauge States
: In our normal, electricatom/molecule level, there is only one internal space vari-able that needs to be specified, the electron phase-angle,for a complete mathematical description of a material,and this is the 1 in the Group Theory label, U(1). In our
magnetic information wave level of physical re-ality, the magnetic monopole phase-angle is the internalspace variable that needs to be specified. Thus, it is alsoa U(1) gauge state in this isolation case. However, whenthese two unique levels of reality are
, now thecoupled system has
correlated internal space vari-ables (phase-angles) to be specified, so the Group The-ory label shifts to SU(2).
A BRIEF LOOK AT HUMANPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
A relevant beginning to this section is with Gustav Fech-ner who, in 1860, wrote a book entitled
Elements of Psy-chophysics
wherein he wrote “Not only does the world in-fluence the mind but the mind influences the world.” By
1910, Johannes Schultz, via combining various ideas from(1) his medical research, (2) hypnosis, and (3) concepts fromyogic methods, developed an inner self-management proce-dure that he labeled “autogenic training,”
a self-generatedor self-motivated training for attaining a variety of stableemotional/mental states. By the
1960s, Elmer and AlyceGreen
had deeply studied voluntary control of
human states, both psychological and physiological, andstrongly promoted the “psychophysiologic principle”whereinEvery change in the human physiological state is ac-companied by an appropriate change in the mental-emotional state, conscious or unconscious, and con-versely every change in the human mental-emotionalstate, conscious or unconscious, is accompanied by anappropriate change in the physiological state.The Greens, along with others, went on to show that theinstrumental monitoring and display, continuous in time, of a particular human physiological parameter can allow an at-tentive human to voluntarily modify the magnitude of thisparameter and thereby alter one’s own physiologic activity,behavior, or process of consciousness. This work and thatof others led to the use of biofeedback as an important med-ical therapeutic procedure. It also generated serious suspi-cion in some concerning the validity of the long-held, un-stated assumption of establishment science that
HUMAN PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, MACROSCOPIC INFORMATION1017