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Valeri Silogava - Znakvis Ucnobi Warwerebi (XI s

Valeri Silogava - Znakvis Ucnobi Warwerebi (XI s

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valeri silogavaznakvis ucnobi warwerebi (XI s.) 
znakva qvemo raWis, ambrolauris raionis sofelia
1
. igi ara marto raWis, aramedmTeli saqarTvelos erT-erTi Zveli istoriuli adgilia. znakva ramdenimegzisaamoxseniebuli iseT Zvel qarTul dokumentur werilobiT ZeglSi, rogoricaa XI s-issabuTi _ `dawerili nikorwmindis monastris winamZRvrisa~: `worbelman Semoswiraznakuas glexi
b
da miwani. da misTÂs aRapi gardaiÃdebodis juaris gamoCinebasa~, _wers znakvis pirveli dasaxelebisas sabuTSi nikorwmindis winamZRvari
2
; cota qvemoT,sabuTis im TavSi, romelsac hqvia _ `romel me miyidian glexni da miwani da maTTÂsgamicemia eklesiisagan ganZad da pirutyvad~, winamZRvari detalurad CamoTvlisznakvasTan dakavSirebul uZrav qonebas, masSi gadaxdil sxvadasxva saxis safasursda aRniSnavs Semdegs:`znakuas Sevqmen sasawnaxelo qviTkiri
a
, da Sigan yurZnisa sawnexi
b
, da SeSisasawnaxeli
a
, [qviT]kirisa boseli
a
, da zed xerxuli boseli
a
, qviTkiri farexi
a
, dazeda qoreTi saxli
a, 
da davhfal maransa Sina Wuri
g
.da munve, znakuas, erisTavTa erisTavman miqel, worbelisagan da vaxtangisaganiyida miwa¡ tyiani da maT uboZa fasad ja
b
, da igi miwa¡ wmida nikolaozsSemoswira.da munve, znakuas viyide agarasTan abulaTaÁs Zisagan venaÃi
a
, da yanaÁ
a
. misTÂsmivec cxeni kargi
a
. da mowameni arian kacni.da munve, znakuas, vaxtangis glexisagan viyide yanaÁ
a
. da mivec xuarbali grivi
g
. da mowameni arian kacni.munve, znakuas, kepoÁs Zisagan viyide yan
a
. da mivec fari erTi,rkina¡ litra¡ rva¡ da qalamani
b. 
da mowameni arian kacni.da munve, znakuas, vaxtangis glexsa mivec saxli
a
. da misgan aviReT yana¡
a
. damowameni arian kacni.glexsa Cuensa cxeni mohpares munve, znakuas, da sazRavad aviReT miwa¡ nakveTi
b
.da mowameni arian kacni.aqSemoisZisagan viyideT munve, znakuas, jurisas CamomarTebiT, yanaÁ
a
, da misTÂsmivec fasi sruli~
3
.kidev erTxelaa sabuTSi znakÂsTavi naxsenebi da aRniSnulia, rom `znakÂs Tavsa¢dilianman Semoswira miwaÁ sanaxevroÁ. mowame arian kacni~
4
.maSasadame, gamodis, rom znakva sabuTSi dasaxelebulia aTjer _ esaa erTi daigive geografiuli saxelis yvelaze metjer dasaxeleba toponimebiT erTob mdidaram werilobiT ZeglSi da amas Tavisi mizezi aqvs, razedac cota qvemoT SevCerdebi.am SesaniSnavi sabuTis es da sxva monacemebi araerTxel yofila ganxiluli daSeswavlili Cvens istoriografiaSi
5
da, cxadia, maT aq ar Sevexebi. magramzemoTmoyvanili vrceli amonaweridan yuradRebas iqcevs, Cvens sakiTxTandakavSirebuli ori garemoeba:
1
saqarTvelos ssr administraciul-teritoriuli dayofa 1987 wlis 1 ianvris mdgomareobiT,Tb., 1987, gv. 10.
2
qisk, I, gv. 39: 9-10.
3
iqve, gv. 40: 20-38.
4
iqve, gv. 41: 24-25.
5
T. Jordania, 
qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa da mwerlobisa, wigni II, tf.,1897, gv. 43-49;
i. javaxiSvili 
, saqarTvelos ekonomiuri istoria, wigni pirveli, misi,Txzulebani, t. IV, Tb., 1996, gv. 121-122; wigni meore, misi Txzulebani, t. V, Tb., 1986, gv. 108,638, 639, 651;
m. berZniSvili, 
 nikorwmindis `dawerili~, mski, nakv. 34, Tb., 1962, gv. 25-42;
il. anTelava, 
nikorwmindis `dawerilis~ daTariRebisaTvis, misi, saqarTvelos saistorio-wya-roTmcodneobiTi Ziebani, Tb., 2002, gv. 382-387.
 
1) yoveli Sewiruleba eklesiisa Tu monastrisadmi, miT umetes, uZravi qonebisa(miwa, yana, tye, venaxi...), rogorc wesi, werilobiT formdeboda. rogorc Cans, amkonkretul SemTxvevaSi amas yovelTvis ar hqonda adgili. SedarebiT mcireSewirulebis Sesaxeb zepiri codna arsebobda, romelic Taobidan Taobasgadaecemoda da cnobili iyo pirTa im wrisaTvis, romelsac es unda scodnoda daromelic pasuxismgebeli da garanti iyo am Sewirulebis iuridiul mxareze. rogorcCans, swored amas aRniSnavs yoveli konkretuli Sewirulebis bolos warmodgeniliformula _ `da mowame arian kacni~.2) sam SemTxvevaSi znakvasTan mimarTebaSi dasaxelebulia konkretulimikrotoponimi: `znakuas agarasTana~, `znakuas juarisas~ da `znakÂs Tavsa~. amaTgan,znakvis agaris mdebareoba daadgina q-ma m. berZniSvilma _ es unda iyos naagarevi,romelic amJamad sofel znakvas ekuTvnis, xolo gvianfeodalur xanaSi calkesofeli iyo
6
. es Tvalsazrisi gaziarebulia istoriografiaSi
7
.rac Seexeba znakvas jvarisas, igi specialur literaturasa da samecnierowreebSi, gansakuTrebiT xelovnebaTmcodneTa Soris, farTod cnobilia imstavroTekis gamo, romelsac gasuli saukunis 20-ian wlebSi mis eklesiaSi miakvliag. boWoriZem, manve gamosca pirvelma (orgzis)
8
da Caabara quTaisis saxelmwifoistoriul-eTnografiul muzeumSi, sadac amJamadac inaxeba (# 3089)
9
. esaa 10×19 smzomis vercxliT SeWedili xis kolofi, romelSic moTavsebulia jvari 6×16 smzomisa. kolofi ixureba vercxlis saxuraviT, romlis zeda nawilSi warmodgeniliawm. grigol sakvirvelTmoqmedi pirdapir da mTeli taniT, xolo mis qvemoT _ rvastriqonad Sesrulebuli reliefuri asomTavruli warwera: `wmidao grigol sak-rvelTmoqmedo, Senda Sevedrebuli evali Seni sahakduxt daÁcev yovlisaganborotisa~. es erT-erTi uZvelesi Cvenamde moRweuli siwmidea 886 w-is zarzmisferiscvalebis xatTan
10
erTad.jvarisas stavroTekas sxvadasxva droiT aTariReben: V s-iT _ g.
 
boWoriZe, p.ingoroyva, S. amiranaSvili
11
. g. boWoriZis cnobiT, i. javaxiSvili da s. janaSiawarweraSi moxsenebul `mÃeval sahakduxts~ vaxtang gorgaslis dedad miiCnevdnen
12
. Xs-iT aTariRebs Zegls g. CubinaSvili
13
. warweris paleografias Seexo g. wereTeli,romelsac am ZeglTan dakavSirebiT konkretuli TariRi ar warmoudgenia, magram aR-niSna, rom `paleografiuli niSnebis safuZvelze Zeglis TariRi aqeT undagadmoiwios (Tumca, arc ise gvian, rogorc amas g. CubinaSvili fiqrobs)~
14
. mec mqondaSemTxveva warwera paleografiuli niSnebis mixedviT dameTariRebina. vfiqrob, amniSnebis mixedviT warwera VII-VIII s-isa. am niSnebis detaluri ganxilvis adgili aqar aris, amitom aRvniSnav mxolod qveda da zeda paleografiuli maCveneblebisSesaxeb _ Â-s muclis maryuJis gaxsna samive SemTxvevaSi. es movlena pirvelad
6
m. berZniSvili 
, nikorwmindis `dawerili~, gv. 33-38.
7
T. beraZe, 
raWa feodalur xanaSi (istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva), sigk, V, Tb., 1975, gv.137.
8
g. boWoriZe 
, jvarisas Zegli, sa, III, tf., 1927, gv. 206-208, sur. I-III; statiis inglisuriTargmani _ g
eorgika 
, I, 2/3, ondon, 1936, t. 50-52;
misive 
, raWis istoriuli Zeglebi, smm, I, tf.,1928, gv. 173-179.
9
m. nikoleiSvili, 
quTaisis muzeumis epigrafikuli Zeglebi, qsmS, krebuli XIII, quTaisi, 2001,gv. 11-12, foto 1.
10
 
 Г 
.
 Н 
.
Чубинашвили
,
 
Грузинское
 
чеканное
 
искусство
,
Текст
,
Тб
., 1959,
с
. 27-42;
Иллюстрации
,
Тб
., 1959 1-4
а
;
T. sayvareliZe, g. alibegaSvili 
, qarTuli Weduri da ferweruli xatebi, Tb., 1980, tab. 1.
11
g. boWoriZe, 
jvarisas Zegli, gv. 108;
 
 Ш 
.
 Я 
 
 Амиранашвили
,
 
История
 
грузинского
 
искусства
,
М
., 1963,
с
.131.
12
g. boWoriZe, 
jvarisas Zegli, gv. 207-208.
13
 Г 
.
 Н 
.
Чубинашвили
 ,
Грузинское
 
чеканное
 
искусство
,
с
.
421-422;
amis mixedviT, aseve X
 
s-iT aTariRebsznakvis stavroTekis warweras
m. nikoleiSvili 
(ix.
misi 
, quTaisis muzeumis epigrafikuliZeglebi, gv. 11).
14
g. wereTeli, 
uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi palestinidan, Tb., 1960, gv.
 
41.
 
mcxeTis jvrisa da wyisis warwerebSi gvxvdeba epizodurad; xolo isini, Sesabamisad,595/605 da 616-119 ww. TariRdebian
15
. zeda zRvari _ VIII saukunea, radgan IX s-idanxuTeuls (e,v,g,l,h) damatebiTi ganivi xazebi uCndeba
16
, rasac aq adgili ara aqvs.garda amisa, IX saukunidanve Semodis nusxuri moxazulobis `lasi~ asomTavrulwarwerebSi
17
, rac aq mxolod Canasaxis formiTaa warmodgenili. erTi sityviT, znakviserT-erT uban jvarisasTan dakavSirebulia erT-erTi uZvelesi qarTuli siwminde _ Ze-li cxorebisa, anu wm. jvris sanawile, romelmac misca, ueWvelia, saxeli, rogorcmTlianad am ubans, ise im eklesias, romelic iq dgas da romelSic es jvariinaxeboda
18
.garda nikorwmindis winamZRvris dawerilSi aRniSnuli da zemoT dasaxelebuliznakvis sami ubnisa, 1925-1926 ww. raWaSi siZveleTa aRricxvisa da Seswavlis mizniTmogzaurobisas, g. boWoriZem znakvis kidev ori ubani _ saSindia da motyiaridaafiqsira da maTi siZveleebi _ xatebi da xatebis fragmentebi da erTi xelnaweriaRwera
19
.amrigad, irkveva, rom istoriuli znakva sakmaod vrcel dasaxlebul teritoriasmoicavda da igi Semdegi ubnebisgan Sedgeboda: agara, juarisa, znakvisTavi, saSindia,motyiari da araa kidev gamoricxuli sxvac, romelTa saxelebma Cvenamde ver moaRwia.am ubnebidanac, zogma saxeli Seicvala (agara< naagarevi), zogi Tanamedrove znakvasSeerwya (saSindia, motyiari), xolo zogic calke saxelad Camoyalibda (jvarisa).TiToeul am ubans Tavisi samlocvelo-eklesia gaaCnda, zogierTs araerTi,romlebmac Cvens dromdec moaRwies _ Tavdapirveli an Secvlili da gadakeTebulisaxiT. erT-erTi maTgania znakvis motyiaris wm. giorgis eklesia, romelSic 2003 wliszafxulSi Catarebuli sarestavracio-aRdgeniTi samuSaoebis dros aRmoCnda qvazeamokveTili ori SesaniSnavi warwera _ Cveni amJamindeli Seswavlis obieqtebi.pirvelad motyiaris eklesiis siZveleebi aRwera g. boWoriZem 1925-26 wlebSiraWaSi mogzaurobis dros, magram es masala gvian _ 1994 wels gamoqveynda
20
. manamde,rogorc cnobilia, orgzis _ 1919 da 1920 wlebSi raWaSi imogzaura e. TayaiSvilma
21
,magram znakvis siZveleebi, da maT Soris motyiarisa, mas aRwerili ara aqvs.g. boWoriZes motyiaris eklesiaSi oriode siZvele daxvedria _ vercxlze naWediwm. giorgis xati, sakmaod mozrdili (39X23 sm), isic ficridan aglejili _ aSiebisgareSe. aq wm. giorgi warmodgenili yofila fexze mdgomared. xats g. boWoriZe XII-XIV ss. aTariRebs. aqve mas upovia `romeliRac xatidan ayrili dabali (xarisxis)vercxlis aSiebi~ _ `sul xuTi naWeri~ da kidev `sxva romeliRac xatidan darCeniliaSia, 1 cali~. es masala mas quTaisis muzeumisTvis Caubarebia (#1891, 1892)
22
.Cvens dReebamde motyiarSi idga XIX s-is eklesia, romelic yvela niSnismixedviT Zvel naeklesiarze iyo aSenebuli, aseve, adgil-adgil Zveli eklesiis qvebisgamoyenebiT. 2003 wlis ivnisSi arqiteqtor-restavratoris b-n
murad andriaZis 
xelmZRvanelobiT XIX s-is eklesia daSlil iqna, calke gadairCa Zveli qvebi da imave
15
qwk, I, #
 
32, 70.
16
iqve, gv. 32.
17
iqve, gv. 33.
18
vfiqrob, sakuTriv toponim `znakvis~ etimologia SeiZleba daukavSirdes raWaSigavrcelebul marcvleulis mosakref xelsawyos `Snakvis~ saxelwodebas. i. javaxiSvilisaRweriT, `Snakvi~ es 20-30 sm. sigrZe da kalmistaris sisxo ori erTmaneTTan moZravad erTTavSi gadabmuli joxia. es martivi xelsawyo Tavisufal TavebSi iSleba da TavTavebiSeikvreba joxis gaswvriv xelis moWeriT, Semdeg odnav gverdze gadaweviT TavTavi tydebaZirSi~ (
i. javaxiSvili 
, Txz., t.
 
IV, gv.
 
365). misive aRniSvniT, `aseTi xis xelsawyo, exlac kiaraWaSi daculi da axlac zanduris jiSis mosavlis mosakrebad ixmareba... am wesis siZvelesTviT xelsawyos primitiuloba... sakmao sicxadiT amJRavnebs~ (misive, Txz., t. V, gv.
 
92).
19
g. boWoriZe, 
raWa-leCxumis istoriuli Zeglebi da siZveleebi, Tb., 1994, gv. 79-80.
20
iqve, gv. 80.
21
e. TayaiSvili, 
arqeologiuri mogzauroba raWaSi 1919 da 1920 ww., Tb., 1963.
22
g. boWoriZe, 
dasax. naSromi, gv. 80.

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