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Published by moosavy
آموزش نرم افزار R commander
آموزش نرم افزار R commander

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Published by: moosavy on Aug 24, 2008
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Getting Started With the RCommander\u2217
John Fox
26 August 2006
1 Starting the R Commander
Once R is running, simply loading theRcmdr package by typing the commandlibrary(Rcmdr) into theR
Consolestarts the R Commander graphical user interface (\u201cGUI\u201d). To function properly under Windows,

the RCommander requires the single-document interface (SDI) to R.1After loading the package,R Console andR Commander windows should appear more or less as in Figures 1 and 2. These and other screen images in this document were created under Windows XP; if you use another version of Windows (or, of course, another computing platform), then the appearance of the screen may di\ufb00er.2

TheR Commander andR Console windows\ufb02oat freely on the desktop. You will normally use the menus
and dialog boxes of the R Commander to read, manipulate, and analyze data.
\u2022R commands generated by the R Commander GUI appear in the upper text window (labelledScript
Window) within the main R Commanderwindow. You can also type R commands directly into
the script window or at the> (greater-than) prompt in theR Console; the main purpose of the R
Commander, however, is to avoid having to type commands.
\u2022Printed output appears by default in the second text window (labelledOutput Window).
\u2022The lower, gray window (labelledMessages) displays error messages, warnings, and some other infor-
mation (\u201cnotes\u201d), such as the start-up message in Figure 2.
\u2022When you create graphs, these will appear in a separateGraphics Device window.
\u2217This manual is adapted and updated from Fox (2005). Please address correspondence tojfox@mcmaster.ca.
1The Windows version of R is normally run from a multiple-document interface (\u201cMDI\u201d), which contains theR Console

window,Graphical Device windows created during the session, and any other windows related to the R process. In contrast, under the single-document interface (\u201cSDI\u201d), theR Console andGraphical Device windows are not contained within a master window. There are several ways to run R in SDI mode \u2013 for example, by editing theRconsole\ufb01le in R\u2019setc subdirectory, or by adding--sdi to theTarget\ufb01eld in theShortcut tab of the R desktop icon\u2019sProperties. This limitation of theRcmdr package is inherited from thetcltk package, on whichRcmdr depends.

2Notice thatRcmdr requires some packages in addition to several of the \u201crecommended\u201d packages that are normally distributed
with R, and loads these packages at startup.Rcmdr, the required packages, and many other contributed packages are available
for download from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) at<http://cran.r-project.org/>.

If these packages are not installed, theRcmdr will o\ufb00er to install them from the Internet or from local\ufb01les (e.g., on a CD/ROM). If you install theRcmdr package via the Windows \u201cR GUI,\u201d the packages on which theRcmdr depends should be installed automatically. More generally, you can install theRcmdr package and all of the packages on which it depends via the

install.packagesfunction, setting the argument dependencies = TRUE.

Thanks to Dirk Eddelbuettel, Debian Linux users need only issue the command$ apt-get install r-cran-rcmdr to install theRcmdr package along with all of the packages that it requires. In any event, building and installing theRcmdr package on Linux systems is typically straightforward. The task can be more formidible under OS/X on Macinstosh systems, since the

tcltkpackage on which the Rcmdrdepends requires that Tcl/Tk be installed and that R is running under X-Windows.
To enable 3D graphics in theRcmdr, install thergl package.
Figure 1: TheR Console window after loading theRcmdr package.
There are several menus along the top of theR Commander window:
FileMenu items for loading and saving script\ufb01les; for saving output and the R workspace; and for exiting.
EditMenu items (Cut,Copy,Paste, etc.) for editing the contents of the script and output windows. Right
clicking in the script or output window also brings up an edit \u201ccontext\u201d menu.

DataSubmenus containing menu items for reading and manipulating data.
StatisticsSubmenus containing menu items for a variety of basic statistical analyses.
GraphsMenu items for creating simple statistical graphs.
ModelsMenu items and submenus for obtaining numerical summaries, con\ufb01dence intervals, hypothesis

tests, diagnostics, and graphs for a statistical model, and for adding diagnostic quantities, such as
residuals, to the data set.
DistributionsProbabilities, quantiles, and graphs of standard statistical distributions (to be used, for
example, as a substitute for statistical tables) and samples from these distributions.
ToolsMenu items for loading R packages unrelated to theRcmdr package (e.g., to access data saved in
another package), and for setting some options.
HelpMenu items to obtain information about the R Commander (including this manual). As well, each R
Commander dialog box has aHelp button (see below).
Figure 2: TheR Commander window at start-up

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