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CMT 564 COAGULANT CIAP!!!

CMT 564 COAGULANT CIAP!!!

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Published by Norazma Zainuddin

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Published by: Norazma Zainuddin on Mar 04, 2011
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10/28/2013

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CMT 564
WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT NO : 2TITLE : COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATIONNAME : NOR AZMA BINTI ZAINUDDINMATRIC NO : 2009422574NAME OF PARTNER : NURUL AIN BINTI OMAR MATRIC NO : 2010235462GROUP : ASB4CN2DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 27 JANUARY 2011
 
 
RESULToptimum pH of coagulation 6.5Optimum dosage of coagulant 3.5 mLOptimum dosage of flocculant 2.0 mLCALCULATIONDosage of coagulant + flocculant : 3.5 ml + 1.0 ml = 4.5 mlDosage of coagulant + flocculant + quantity of waste water: 4.5 ml + 100 ml =104.5 mlActual dosage of coagulant: 3.5 × 4.5% = 104.5× YY = 0.1507 %Actual dosage of flooculant: 2.0 × 4.5 % = 104.5 × XX = 0.0861 %DISCUSSIONThe main purpose of the coagulation and flocculation process is the removal of turbidity fromthe water. During coagulation process, the coagulant chemicals (for this experiment we use ferricchloride as coagulant) neutralize the electrical charges of the fine particles in the water, allowingthe particles to come closer together and form large clumps.
 
The final step which is flocculation,a process of gentle mixing brings the fine particles formed by coagulation into contact with eachother. For this experiment we use calcium carbonate as flocculant. This process allows large flocto form without being broken apart by the mixing blades. The floc will then settle out in thesedimentation basin, with remaining floc being removed in the filter. From this experiment, wedetermine the optimum pH of coagulation process by looking at the most largest amount of clumps that settle out at the bottom of conical flask.Theoretically, the effective pH for coagulation when we use as coagulant is between 4-12 and literally the optimum is 6.5. For thisexperiment, as expected we get pH 6.5 where there are large amount of clump settled out at thebottom of flask compare to others conical flask with different pH of solution. Either than pH,dosage of coagulant and flocculant also are the factors that control coagulation and flocculation.From the experiment, the optimum dosage of coagulant is 2 ml where it shows the least turbidsample and this should correspond to the optimal coagulant dosage chosen. The optimum dosageof flocculant is 1.5 ml. In order to determine the optimum dosage, the waste water will show themost amount of floc that are settle out at the bottom of conical flask. We also determine theoptimum dosage of the flocculant by looking at most clearest supernatant.
 
 QUESTION1.
 
Why must the flask be shaken gently after adding the flocculant?The water is shaken gently in order to encourage floc particles to clump together. Shaken to fastwill break the large particles apart. However, stirring too slow can prevent the particles toclumps together.2.
 
Can flocculant be added before coagulant?Coagulant must be first added before flocculant in order to neutralize the charged particles. If flocculant added first little neutralized particles and they cannot agglomerate to form larger particles that can settle under gravity.3.
 
Coagulation and flocculation are sensitive to many variables. List the variables andexplain its influence in the treatment.These processes will be affected by changes in the water's pH, salt content, and also thealkalinity of the water. It¶s because the levels of pH, salts, and alkalinity in water are all ways of measuring the amounts of positively charged particles (cations) and negatively charged particles(anions) in the water. As a result, all three factors influence the amount of coagulants whichmust be used to remove the turbidity in the water. Then the water treatment will be affected.REFERENCES
1.
 
http://www.finishingtalk.com/community/topic371-Jar-Test-Procedures-for-Precipitants-Coagulants-and-Flocculants.html 2.
 
http://www.dgrsol.com/tempWater/municipalWater/drinkingWater/coagulants.php3.
 
http://warponline.org/volume2/4.%20Improvement%20of%20Coagulation%20Flocculation%20Process%20for%20Treatment%20of%20Detergent%20Wastewaters%20Using%20Coagulant 
4.
 
http://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Rosemount%20Analytical%20Documents/Liq_ADS_43-019.pdf 
 

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