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Alternative Network Letter Vol 2 No.3-Sep 1986-EQUATIONS

Alternative Network Letter Vol 2 No.3-Sep 1986-EQUATIONS

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Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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ALTERNATIVE
NETWORK
LETTER 
A
Third
World
Tourism
Communication 
And
Information
Alternative 
Vol.
2
No.3
For
Private Circulation
Only
September 1986
T
HERE
is an
increasing trend
tow,
ards
liberalisation
in
all
sectors
of
the 
Indian
economy,
resulting
inno
less
than
a
crisis
of
sorts
on the
foreign
COST
OF
TOURISM 
trade
front.
Spiralling imports
and
a
marked
decline
in
export
revenues
lost
Edens
and
Cultural
Freak
Shows 
have
combined
to produce
a
record
deficit of
Rs.
8,300
crores.
by
Ian
Buruma 
Tourism,
traditionally
given
a
low
. .
In
natlonafprans,
has
however
. 
T
OURISM,
some
say,
broadens the
mind.
It
fosters
understanding
performedpromisingly. Almost
by
efault,
and
despite
political
upheavals,
r.:
,
'between
people from
different
countries.
It
boosts
local economies;
tourism
became
the
largest
foreign
exchange
earner for
the
country,
grossingstrengthens people's interest
in
their
own
cultural
heritage;
widens
social
rRs.
1,300
c r o n ~ s . 
Though
a
miniscule proportion of
the
world
trade
in
tourism,
opportunities;
creates
nationalidentities;
spreads
and
distributes
new
J
nevertheless
constitutes
20%
,of
the
current
budget
deficit.
techniques
and
standards.\AII these
good
things
were
attributed
to
tourism
Hardpressed to
maintain
the
recent
liberalisation
measures,
planners
areat
a
seminar
held in
Singapore
this
year
on 'Social
and
EconomicImpact
oflooking
at
tourism
with
renewed
interest.
They feel
that
with additional
inputs,Tourism
D e v e l o p m e n t ~
tourism
earnings
can
multiply
and
in
the
process
ease
the
balance
of
trade 
~
(There
is
another,
equally
common
view
of
tourism,which
is
that
touflsmsituation.
It
is
hardlysurprising
that
thesignals
sent
out
bythegovernment's
,
destroys
local cultures; destabilizes economies;
c a u ~ e s 
pollution
and
new
policy
initiatives
reflect
a distinct attitudinal
(hange.
exploitation;
fosters
cultural
misunderstanding, resulting
in
insults
andworse.
The measure
of
tourism'Snew
found
importance
lies
in
its
swift
elevationCertainly
one
look
around
anY
given
tourist
spot
makes
it quite
clear
that
touriststo
industry
status.
Tourism
is
now thrownopen
to
local capitalists
and
are
a
nation's
worst
representatives.)
multinationalsalike,
who
benefit
in
two
ways.
First,
by decreased
public
sector
Which
view of tourism
is
more
true?
The
correct
answer
obviously
is
that
investment, and second,
through numerous
incentives, concessions
and rebates
it
depends on
the type
of
tourism
and
tourists.
To
be sure,
the negative sideoffered by the
government,
including
the
lifting
of
the
Monopolies
and
of
tourism
is
the
one that
firsts
meets
the
eye,
especially
in
places
offering
Restrictive
Trade
Practises
Act
in relation
to
hotel
investments.
somewhat one-sided attractions.
The
report of
the
Singapore
seminar
puts
it
Past
policies
have
been
completely
overhauled to transform
Indian
tourism
very
nicely:
"The
most
important
and
frequently cited
drawback that
tourism
alongthe lines
of
Singapore,
Thailand,
Hong
Kongand
other majorthirdworld
possesses is
that
it
is
the
industry
of
pleasure and
recreation
and
entails
the
conspicuous
expenditure
and
consumption
of
wealth upon pleasure-givingobjects."
- - - . ~ 
EDITORIAL
It isn't that
for
example,
Manila,
Bangkok
or
Taipei
have
nothing
but
pleasure
giving
girls
and
boys
to offer
the
foreignvisitors
they
do;
all
three
cities
tourism destinations. No longer
will
Indian
tourism
be
solely
marketed
for
have
museums, places
of
historical
and
r e l i g i o u ~ 
interest,
parks
and
gardens
and
so
forth.
It
is
just
that
prostitution
appears
to be the
main
attraction.
Thisits
cultural
heritage
and
historical
monuments. It
is
poised to
diversify
into
.
~ c r e a t i o n , 
adventure,
conference
and
duty
free
tourism
...
New destinations
puts governments
conscious
of
the
image
of
their country
in
a
quandary,
for
ill
be
developed
all
overthe
country including
areas
hitherto
defined
as
the
revenue
involved
is
considerable.
culturally,
politically
and
ecologically
sensitive.
Even
if
one
does
not
feel
that
prostitution
is
a
bad
thing
per
se,
sex
tourism
While
the
directions
of
these
policies
are
all
too
evident,
several
resulting
does
not
show
people
at
their
best.
The
nightly
spectacle
at
certain
Bangkok
implications
have
not
been
speltout.
With
thisin
mind,
a
workshopon
'THE
hotels
of
German males
carrying
on
as
if
they
were at Bavarian
cattle
auctions
FUTURE
OF TOURISM
IN
INDIA
AND
ITS
IMPLICATIONS'
was
organiseddoes
little
to, promote
theimage
of
Germany in
Thailand.
J a p ~ n e s e 
menby EQUATIONS
in
late May
1986.
In
a
special
supplement
we
bring
you
the
carousing in
Seoul
hardly
improoethe
already
highly
strained
relations
between
Workshop
Statement and
Conclusions.
Japan
and
South
Korea.
And
Indians
and
Arabs
on the razzle often
appearto
do
their
very best to
confirm
the
common prejudices
held
about
them
in
This
is
the
third
issue'
of
the
Network
letter
brought out
by EQUATIONSSoutheast
Asia.
on
behalf
of
the
network
of
Third
World
Tourism.In
an
effort
to
ensure
that
This
is
from
the
point
of
view
of
the
local
population.
One might
it
continues to reflect
and
incorporate
the
needs
ofour
readership,
weare
attempting
a
new
style
of
editorial
dynamics.
As
a
first
step,
a
group
of
also
wonder
about
the imageof,
say,
Thailand
in
the
minds
of
visitorsconcerned
Goan
journalists
have
agreed
to
put together
an issue
on
GoanTourism
at
'(arnaval'
time,
1986,
peak
tourism
season
atGoa.We
look
forward
to
hearingfrom
others
interested
in
taking
the
initiative
of highlighting
tourism
concerns
in
their
own
regions!
countries through
these
pages.
.
Rajan
Alexander
cont\i.
OIIerleaf
 
2 
contd. from
page
1
who
have
seen
little
else
but
the
bars
of
Pattaya.
One could
argue
that
without
the sex-tourists many
people
would
be
out
of a
job.
This
is
true enough,
but
whatever
else
it
may
do, the
buying
and
sellingof,
say,
street
urchins in
Manila
does
not do wonders for internati'onal
understanding,
cultural
heritage,
spread
of
technology
and
all
those
other
goodthings.
The
main
problem
is
of
course
economic.
If
everybody
gets
richer,
even
sex
tourism
loses
its
harder
edges.
It
is
rather
touching,
for
example, to
see
newlyrich
tour
groups
(malesandfemales)
from
Taiwan
or
Singapore
craning
their
necks
of
expensive
japanese
sex
shows
in
Tokyo:
if
everybody
does
it
toeverybody
else, perhaps
we
will
end
up
as
one happy
family.
Sex
is
naturallybut
one
touristattraction.Another
major
asset
of
some Asian
countries
is
the
lure
of
"unspoilt"
tropical
gardens
of
Eden.
However,
the
trouble
with
Edensis
that
as
soon
as
they
are
discovered
by the
tourist
trade,they
cease
tobe
so
Eden-like.The
local population
starts
behaving
like
toutsand hucksters,
fastfood
restaurants
proliferate
and
local
life
and
rituals
become
distinctly
less
charming when
lit with
eleCtronic flashbulbs.
Still,
there
are
a lot of
Edens
in
Asia
and
in, for
instance,Phuket
and
Bali,
the
localgovernments,
have
done
admirable
jobs in
herding
the
majority of
foreign visitors
into
small reservations,
near
the
beaches,
where they do
least
harm.
The
Bal
inese
also
appear
to
have
withstood
tourism
with their
traditions
more
or
less
unscathed. This,
unfortunately,
is
notthe
case
in many
other
places.
Although
it
may
be
true that the money
generated by
tourism
helps preserve
traditions which might otherwise die
out, this
is
not
necessarily
a
good
thing,
However,
the trouble
with
Edens
is
that 
as
soon
as
they
are discovered
by
the
touristtrade, they
cease
to be
so
Eden-like. 
particularly
when
traditions
are
tailored
or
even
kept going especially for
the
touristtrade.,This
leads
towhat
one
might call
a
"Disneylandisation"
of culture.Once
vital
ways
of life
are
neatly
packaged
like
products.This
can
be
done
within
the
bounds
of
reasonably good
taste,
such
as
the
Ancient City
near
Bangkok,
where
traditional
architecture
is
reconstructedon
a
smaller
scale.
It
is
fake,
but
a
rafher
well
done
fake.
There
is
one
aspect
of
the
city which
represents
the
worst
of
Disneylandisation,
however:
a
tree-house
with"real" hill-tribe
people from the north.
For
a
fee,
they
will
pose
for
a
picture
in
their traditional
costume.
One
can
gawk
at
them
for
free.
Minorities,
from
the
Ainu
in
Hokkaido
Oapan)
to
the aborigines in Taiwan,
are
the
most
vulnerable
to
this kind
of
treatment.
Their traditional
livelihoods
are often no
longer
economically
feasible
and
the
~ p l e
end
up
as
colourful
oddities,
to be
displayed
like
rare
animals
at
a
zoo.
There
is
really not muchdifference
between
watching
aborigines
performing
once-sacred
dances
for
the
benefit
of
phot9-snapping
tour
groups
and
staring
at freaks
in
an
old
fashioned
carnival
show.
What
is
truly worrying
is
how
some
countries
are
slowly
Disneylandising
their
entire
heritage.
China
appears
to
be
a
case
in point. After
previously
having
done
its best
to
destroy
every vestige
of
the
Jlbad
old
days,"
the Chinese
government
is
now
eagerly
courting
international
tourists.-But
most
"foreign
guests"
are
more
interested inseeing
what
is
left
of
old
China
than
in
communes,
factoriesor
newly
constructed
dams. Because
there
is
little
left,
Chinese
authorities
are
literally picking
up
the pieces
of
China's
past,
by
putting
bits
of
temples
from one
place together
with
piecesfrom
another.
To
quote
the
Italian
journalist
Tiziano
Terzani
:"China
is
in
the
process
of
putting
together
a cultural
and
historic
monster,
a
kind
of
archeological
Frankenstein,
for
the
exclusive
benefit
of
foreign consumers."
Tourism
brings people
from
completely different
cultures
and
economic
levels
together.This,
say
the
optimists,
such
as
the Singapore seminarists,
"offers awindow
to any
country
for
a
healthy
exchange
of
views
and
information with
contd. on
page
5 Cot. 1
TOURISM 
COLLAPSES
WITH 
BRIDGE? 
T
HE
Mandovi river
bridge
was
the main
link
betweenNorth
and South
Goa.
Inaugurated in
1970,
the
bridge
with
an
estimated
life
span
of
100
years
collapsed
onJuly 5th
this
year,
bringing
to
a
standstill
the
economicactivityof
the
Union
Territory, dislocating
normal transportation
and social
life
..
We
are
reproducing
extracts
of a
recent
article
onthecollapse
and
its
economicramifications,
including
those
to
Goan
tourism.
The
irony
of
it
all
is
that
the bridgegave
way in
the 25th
year
of
Goa's
liberation.
A
gift
from India
to
Goa,
the Mandovi bridge had
been
inaugurated
by
Jagjivan Ram
in 1970 (Incidentally,
it
collapsed about
the
timehe
died).Built
tolast
a
hundred
years,
it
served
a
mere
15.
Hardly 150
metres
away,
the
Ponte
de
Linhares
or
the
Pato
Bridge,
built
without
steel,
was
begining
its
353rd
year,
despite
carrying
doublethenumber
of
vehicles
than
the
Mandovi
Bridge.
,
The
Goan
government had
inaugurated
an
intensive
phase
of
industrialisatiq
"
on the
foundation
of
the
bridge.
It
hadexpanded
the
industrialestates,
promoted
tourism,
and
even succeeded
inharnessing
Goa's
natural
beauty
for
important
international
events
like
the
CommonwealthConference
retreat in
1983.
In
addition, the
territory
had
become
the
darling
of
themiddle
class
tourist.
Nearly
90%
of
those
whQ
visited
Goa
were
domestic
tourists.
The
bridge
allowed
package
tours
that
enabled
the outsider
to
sample
Goa's
wares
within
48
hours.
All
these numerous
activities
collapsedmore
completely
than
the bridge
itself,
which lost
only
a
100
metres
of
its length. There
was,
however,
literally
nothing
with
which
to
bridge
the
gap
except
a
round-about route
through
Goa's
mining
areas,
involving
an
additional
50
kms,
most
of
it
bad,road.
The
general
effect
was traumatic;
the
economy
was
crippledandcommuters
to
Panjim,
the
capital,
were
put
to
s.evere
hardship. Both
industry
and
tourismfaced
legitimate
panic. With
one swift
stroke, Goa
returned to
a
period
in
its
pastcloserto
1968,
but
with industrial and
tourist
activity
20
times enhanced,
it
was
like
asking
a
Jumbo
jet
to
make
do with
a
bullock
cart
track.
CLAUDE
ALVARES
in
Express
Magazine,
Sunday
July
271986
Brochure
Withdrawn
A
japanesetravelagency
w h i c h . _ ~ 
described Calcutta
as
a
'a
dirty, 
poor
and
noisyplace'
had
to
with-/
draw
its
brochure
in
the wake
of a
protestlodged by
the Consul
General
of
India
in Tokyo,
the
Minister of
State
for Tourism, Mr.
Santosh
Dev.
told
the
Lok
Sabha
today.
The
information
was
given
bythe
Minister
to
Mr. NityanandMishra
and
Mr.
Sommath
Rath
who
wanted to
know
whether
"Kinki Nippon" of
japan
had
advertised
in
japanese
papers
sponsoring
students tours toCalcutta
to
see
what poverty
was.
The
agency
had
brought out
a
pamphlet
to
promote
studenttravel
to
India
and
described
the
country
as
the
"land of
non-violence".
The
description
of
Calcutta
was
also
contained
in the
same
pamphlet.
Source: 9 August 1986. The
HINDU
 
{f'.
3
The
Future
of
Tourism
In
India
and
Its
Implications
r i . ~ S T A ' t E r a N T 
1
Twenty eight
pel'5Ons,
from
various walks
of life
all
over
India,
met
at
Bangalore
betweenrMay
25
-
28,
1986,
for
the
first NationalWorkshop
on
The
Future
of
Tourism
in
India
and
its
Implications.Initiated
by
Equitable Tourism
Options
(EQUATIONS),
Bangalore, the
Workshop provided
an
opportunity
for
many
to
learn,to
share
experiences,
to
think
together,
and
to
plan
for
the
future
of
tourism
in
this nation.
We
heardthe
testimony
of
damage
caused
to
environment
and
ecology,
thegenocide
of
local
culture,
economy
and
society.
We
listened
over
andagain
to
the
bypassing
of
the
stated needs
of
people
living
in tourist
areas,
inthe interest
of
tourism
development.
These
testimonies-came
to
us
in
reports from
otherdeveloping
nations,
and
within
India,
from Goa, Khajuraho
and
GarhwalHimalayas.
Audia-visual
presentations
at
the
dose
of
each
day strengthened
our
understanding
and
concern.
,r-,
We
reiterate that
tourism
development
does
pot
automatically
guarantee the
development
of
socio-economic
and
other
resources
required
by'
host
communities.
Very often, we
have
seen
that
it
alienates
hosts,
by
displacing
them from
places
they
have
lived
in
for
generations,
by
robbing
them
of
traditional
means
of livelihood,
andby
providing
them
with
low-paid,
servilealternatives.
The
foreign exchange
earned
rarely
sti¥s
in the
local
economy,being diverted to
other
sectors,
oftenoutsidethe
country. Colonial
stereotypes
of
'master'
and
'servant'
areexaggerated,
degrading indigenous culture
andtrad
itions.
However,
all cross<ultural
contacts
are
not
exploitative
and
destructive. We
heard also
of
the experiences
of
peopleexperimenting
with
new
forms
of
tourism.
This gave
us
the
hope
that
it
is
possible to
challengeexisting
structures
by
offering meaningful,
people-based,alternatives. Tourism in
India
has
yetto
reach
a
threshold
level,
and
we
need
to act
now
if
the
'lessons
learned by
other
nations
are
to be
avoided.We
cameaway
from
the
Workshop
in the
confidence
that we
are
not
alonein
the struggle. The
concern
for
third
world
tourism
has
been recognised
internationally
for
over
a
decade,andwe have
foundmanyfriends
andca-
~
workers
in that
network.
~ n
India,
our
un,derstanding and
vision
is
now dearer,
.
opening
many
new
avenues
of
action
and
channels
of
communication.
1.0 
Policy
It
Structure
1.1 
From
t h e ~ a s e
studiesand
analyses
of
tourism in India,
presented
at
the
Workshop,
it
was
evident
that
the
Government
Tourism
Policy,
1982,
had
failed in
'its
objectives
of
'developing
social
tourism to
benefit
the
weakersections
of
society'.
Indeed, in
most
situations, tourism
had
developed
at
greatcost
tolocal
communities,
in
physicat
socialand
economic
terms.
a . 
We
recommend
that
fresh
national
and
regional
policies
be
evolved, involving
local
people
in all aspects
of
their
evolution,
as
well
as
in tourism programme
implementation.
Methods such
as
public
debate should
be
adopted in
arriving
at such Policies
and
programme
decisions.
b. 
Guidelines emerging
from
this
process
should
be
enacted
.as
law,
andwidelypublicised.
c. 
Ifthe
Government
policy
on
domestic
tourism
is
to
succeed,infrastructuralsupport
for
its
development should
be identified,
and
given
priority.
This
should
also
take
into account existing
infrastructure, rather than
the
building
of
new,often
unnecessary,
facilities.
d.
A
comprehensive
Code
of
Conduct
for
the
tourism
industry
is
required
in
India,
and
ways found
for
its
dissemination and
implementation.
The
recent Code
evolved
by
the World
Tourism
Organisation
could
be
incorporated
and
adapted
to
meet
Indian
needs.
1.2 
Althoughtourismin India
is
not dominated
by
multinational
companies,'
much
of
it
is
dominated
by
powerfuldomestic
companies, whosepromoters do
not
represent the interests
of
those
living
in
tourist
areas.
a. 
Tourism
development
shOUld
ensure-that local residents
are
not
deprived
of
infrastructurai
amenities and
accessto
naturalresources.
b. 
Furthermore,
to
achieve
this,
we
urge
theaction
of
EQUA
TIONS
and other concerned
groups in
promoting
an
awareness at alllevels,
of
the
manipulation
of
tourism
policy
by
multinationalsand
d o m ~ t i c
commercial
lobbies.
2.0 
Economic
2.1 
Tourism
development
has
often beenaccompanied by
the
twin
economic
evils
of
displacing
local
communities
from
traditional
dwelling
and
working
areas,
as
well
as
depriving
them
of
jobs
and
employmentopportunities.
Local
populations
are
also
subjected to
inflationary
tendencies,
and
decreasing
access
to
commodities
and goods,
which
are
diverted
to
meet
tourist
needs.
a.
Approval
of
tourismprojects
should only
be
given
where the
livelihood
of
communities
is
not
threatened,
and
measures
taken
to safeguardresourcesrequiredlocally.
b. 
Government,
financial
institutions and other support
agenciesshould promote
alternative tourism
mcxiels,
based
on
investment-
.-......
employment
ratios
more
favourabletola/Jour-intensive patterns,
controlled
by
local
people
andusinglocallyavailable
resources,
as
opposed
to
encouragement
of
5
Star
tourism
contrelled
by
outside
interests.
2.2 
In
most
statisticaLprojections
of
tourism
earnings, the
toolgenerally
used
is
the
Gross Foreign
Exchange Earnings
(GFEE).
Both its
reliability
and
ethics in
use
have
given
rise
to
serious
q u e ~ t i o n s . 
.
a . 
W ~
recommend
thatthe
Net
Foreign
Exchange
Earnings
be
used
in all
computations
of
earnings
from
tourism,which
provides
a
morerealistic
and
honest
appraisal thanthe
GFEE.
b. 
Legislation
is
also
required to
regulate
the
import
content
of
tourism,
eg:
by
hotels,
recreation/amusement
facilities,
tour
operators, etc.
2.3 
The
employment provided
to local people
is
usually underpaid,
servile
and
often
highly
exploitative
(eg: many instances'were given
of
unionisation not beingallowed
in
5
Star
hotels).
a. 
Local
t!mployment
should
be
provided
at
all
levels
of
the
industry,
including
managerial.
b. 
Industry
should
be
legally
prevented
from
misusing
employment
Conld. overleaf

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