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Alternative Network Letter Vol 6 No.2-Jul 1990-EQUATIONS

Alternative Network Letter Vol 6 No.2-Jul 1990-EQUATIONS

Ratings: (0)|Views: 27|Likes:
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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-------
----------
12
vt1?
Ilwite Network members to contribute to
the
NeMvrk
Letter
NETWONK
by
sharing their work, icleas
and
pl.CJns
through these pages.
NEWS
Communication is vital to the lIfe
of
a
Network
especially when
NOUNDUP
physical distances cannot easily
be
bridged
bydoser
(Ol7tacts.
Child
ProstitutionConsultation,
Thailanci
A consultation
on
the
linksbetween
tourism
and the
growi'lg child
Tourism,
Environment
and
the
law
Drmtitution
indu'>try
was
held
(It
Chiang
Mai
between May
1-5,
1990.the
Ecumenical
Coalition
on
ThirdWorld
Tourism,.
it
marked
the
conclusion
Our
schedule
for
the
includes a national consultation
on
the
links
research
project (overing
Thailand,
Philippines
and
Sri
Lanka. Some
reports
between
tourism environmental
and
legal
issues,
Aug
2,
from othp(
countries
were also presented,
including
one
on
India by
K T
Suresh
at
Bangalore.
of
Equations.
We
would
be
glad
to
hear
from
people or institutions involved
in
any
Action
stratct!,i(-'s
from
thf'
mnSLJ
Itation wi
II
form
thenext
phase
ofof
these
areas
who would like to participate, especially
make
a written
th
is
importilnt project,
of
which
wi
II
be
available
from
ECTWT,
POBox
or
visual
contribution.
24,
Chorakhebud,
10230,
Thailand.
This
will
be
a
major
event,
and
we expect oal1icioants from
all
over
Tourism
and
Racism,
Hawaii.
USA
as
well
as
abroad,
to
be
present.The annual
" o n ~ u l t a t i o n 
of
the
North
American
Network
for Responsible
Tourism (NANET)
wi
I!
be
held
October
26-30,
1990,
looking
at
issues
of
Racism
in
Tourism.
Collaborators include
thenevvly
formed
Ilawaii
Ecumenical
COillition
on
fourism
(f
IECOT).
Write
to
NANET,
2
Kensington
Road,
San
Resources
An,elmo,
CA
94960,
USA.
Hosts
and
Guests:
The
Anthropology of Tourism,
2nd
Edition,
Valene Smith
University of
Pennsylvania
Press,
1989.
Tourism
in
South India
The second
edition
of
a
volume of
essays
includes
postscripts
written
after
10 years
by
the authors
of
the
first.
The
essays
by
Dennison
Nash
and
Nelson
1991
has
been
declared
\7isit
India
Year
by the Tourism Ministry
Graburn
in
the
introductory 'theoretical
overview'
are
excellent,
and
have
been
in
New
Delhi. Apart from the massive boost given to adventure
left unchanged.
Theron
Nunez
was
unable
to
review
his
anthropological
and
recreation tourism. several areas have now
been
marRed
perspectives
on
tourism
(final
chapter)
owing
to
ill-health, but
an
eoilogue
was
for special
promotional
efforts. amon\l
them the
Southern
written
and
discussed
with
Nunez
byhis
student
James
lett.
Indian states, Rnmvn for their miles of sandy sea·fronts,
game
Most
of
the
authors appear to
be
quite positive about
the
tourism
industry,
sanctuaries, temples
and
'friendly smilin"r people.
EQUATIONS
sounding almost
like
apologists.
One
even
concludes
(rather unacademically)
has
begun
a
programme
of
documentation.
networt2ing
and
that
'tourism
is
a bit
of
an
escape
from our local problems
...
to the
carefree
times
consultation in order to develop coordinated action
on
the
issue.
Every month. we
will
produce
a set of
ne\.'17S
clippings (xeroxed),
of childhood
when someone
else
had to
do the
worrying for
us,
and
and
distribute to a limited
group
of people. Write to us
if
you
is
here
tostay!'
One
wonders
if
this
has
something
to
do with the
fact
wish to receive these
(at
cost),
and
if
you would
liRe
to participate
by
the
editor)
that
i
many
travel
industry
conferences
regularly
schedule
one
in
related activities later this year.
or two
sessions
on
tourism
research, and
anthropologists
thus
find employment
as
industry
consultants'.
Cultural Survival Quarterly,
Vol
14,
Nos
1
&
2, 1990,
11
Divinity
Avenue.
Tourism
and
Socio-Cultural
C h a n ~ e , 
Warsaw
ambridgf' MA
02HB,
USA. The
Institute oilourism
in Warsaw
has
initiated a international
study Entitled
'I:3reaking
out
of
the
Tourist
Trap:
these
two
issues
contain a
wealth
of
on
the
relationship
betwf'en
tourism
and
socio-cultural
The study
spans
information
on
the
socia-cultural
changes
wrought
by
tourism
in
ecologically
a
12-ycdl
period from
1990
to 2002,
and
compares
in
both tourism
and
and
sensitive regions
(Ladakh,
Tanaloraja, Greenland).
Some
other
industrial
sectors.
Write
toDr
julian
Bystrzanows'"
Instituteanthropologists consider tourism
as
inviolable
academic
territory.
and
some
9a,
02·511
Warsaw,
Poland.
of
the
articles reflectthis
imbalance,
though most
are
of
high
Caribbean
Tourism
Conference,
Trinidad
and
Tourismand
Ecology:
The
Impact of
Travel
on a Fragile Earth,
i'.A
'\.JET/CRT.
Thf'
Caribbean
Tourism
Organisation,
in
collaboration with
the
Government
Kensington
Road,
San
Anselmo,
CA
94960
..
USA,
1990.
and
Tobago,
the
World
Tourism
Organisation,
and
others,
is
The
report
of Consultation V of
the
North American Network
brings
together
an
intl'rnational
Conference on
Tourism
and
Socia-cultural
Change in
Caribbean,
june
25-25,1990,
at
Trinidad
andlobago.
The
list of
various
reports
and resources on
tourism
and
ecology
issues,
includes
Rev
Allan Kirton,
executive
member
of
the
[CTWT.
focussing
on
the
USA.
Center
for Solidarity Tourism,
Manila 
The
Nuclear Industry:
The
Death of
Tourism in
Goa, Gabriella
Petra
da
Rosa,
Cvan
Policy
Research
Cell,
India,
May
1990,33
pp.
A
consultationsppkirlg
to
network
alternative tourism
advocates
dnd the
victims
of
r11il)S
tourism
was
held
atTagaytay,
Cavite,
on
June
2 &
3,
1990.
Dr
Koson
an
examination
of nuclear
power
plants
globrllly;
the author
focuses
Sri'>ang
of
EC.TWT
made
d
keynote
presentation,
while
Paul
Gonsalves discussedon
the threat posed
by
the
Kaiga
station
(in Karnataka)
on
thehealth. economythe experience
of
EQUATIONS
in
India.
For
a
report,
write
to
Norma
and
well-being of
Goaand
its
tourism
industry.Copies
,:Nrl>:d;";.
from
Tinambacdn,
CST,
444
Cuadalupe
Bliss,
Makati, Metro Manila,
Philinninp,
EQUATIONS
(Rs
40
in
India,
US$
5.00
elsewhere).
Pubhshed
by:
Equitable
T o u r i ~ m 
Options
(EQUATIONS), 96, H
Cokmy,
Indiranagdr
Stage
1,
Bdngalure
560
038,
INDIA. 
Design and PholOtypesmirig:
Revisuality
Digitised
Typesettingand
Graphic De'iigll,
42/1
Lavelle
ROdd,
B,mgaiore,
India. 
ALTERNATIVE NETWORK
LETTER
A Third World Tourism Critique
O
For
Private Circulation
Only
Vol.
6
No.2
luly
1990n
Sunday
june
10th,
I
joined a
group
of concerned Filipinos
on
a visit
Tourism
in
Algeria
to
Pagsanjan,
a tourist
resort famed
for
its
water
rapids, and
notorious
by
Chris Mcivor
for
male
child prostitution
or
pedophilia.
The
2-hour
jeepney(the
Ph
i
I
ippi
nes'
unique
form
of public
transport) ride from
Manila
passes
through
,
'N
ot
so
many
years
ago
Tamanrasset
was
nothing but
a
shanty
town;'
some
lovely countryside, notably
the
laguna
backwaters.
commented
the manager
of
one
of
the new hotelsthat
have
been
The
purpose
of our visit
to
Pagsanjarl, however,
WdS
far
from
being touristic.built
there
in the last few
years.
"There
was
no
electricity or running
Tourism
offid:ils
in
Manila
have
recently woken
up
to
problems
water,
hotels
or
roads;'
he
continued, "but
now thatthe
tourists
have
startedand
decided
that
the
b e ~ t 
way
to
tackle
them
wou!d
be to
denouncecoming
this
town
has
prospered
to
becomeone
of
therichest in
the
southern
destination.
'Pagsanjan
is
no
longer
a
Fi
lipino
attraction,
don'tof
Algeria:'
This
sentiment
is
one that
is
echoed
by
many
of
the merchants
~ h e r e : 
they
wamed the
intemational
traveltrade.
No
problem,
traders
of
the community
whose
b U 5 i n e ~ s e s 
have
thrived with
the
arrival
moved
elsewhere
in
the
7,OOO-odd
islands.
ofnumerous
French,
German,
Swiss
and
Italian
tourists,
Every
year
between
There
is
a problem, though:
the
boatmen who depended on tourists for
their October
and
April
they
converge'on the town to
visit
the famousHoggarregion
livelihood
were
left high
anddry.
They
got
organised
soon
enough, but of
the country.
The
growth of tourism
however
is
not confined
to
Tamanrasset
discoveredit
was
not just
the
tourism ministry
they
had
to
face.
A variety of but
has
also
spread
to
many
of
the
other communities
inthe
Algerian
Sahara,
and
other bodies
now
counted
among
those
who
were
clearly not
anarea
which
has
become in recent
years
one
of
themost
popular tourist
friends.
Far
from
India though it
is,
the
signs
of
Asia
are
unmistakable.propositions
in
North Africa.
the boatmen, whose
demand
is
simply:
its
neighbours
10
the west
and
east,
Morocco
and
Tunisia,we needtourists,
so
we
want themback. But
notthepedophiles. On
June12th,been
slow
to
develop
its
tourist potential.
Commented
one
government
took out a rally
in
Manila, which
was
also
celebrating
Independence
Day.
in
Tamanrasset,
"In
1962,
after
independence, Algeria
has
little time
to
thinkabout tourism.
The
country
was
geared
to
rebuilding itself, developing
its
we were
not
presentthen,
we
heard
that
'major
demands
have
beenindustries,
providing education
for
its
children.
':At
the
same
time;'
he
concluded,
met'
as
a
result. 
"the
war
left bitter
memories in the
minds of
most
and wewere
not
In
Thailand,
the government
does
not officially
recognise the existence
of 
open
our
arms
to
tourists from
a country which
had
killed half a million prostitution. though it
is
freelyadvertised
even
in
daily
newspapers
under
the
Also the
large resources
of oil
and
natural
gas
which
began
to
be
m h p m ' l ~ n l < ; 
'massage
parlours'
or'escort
services'.
It
must
have
taken
Public
extracted
during
thelate
60's and
70's
meant
that Algerian
demandforforeign
currency
was
not
so
pressing
as
its
neighbours
and
so
tourism
was
largely
Just
One
Planet 
ignored
as
a
means
of
bringing
money
into
the
country. Now
the
Algerian
Government,.
having
recognized
the
lucrative potential of
thissector
and
the
Health Minister Marut
Bunnag
an
incredible
degree
of political tightrope
need
for
the
tourist industry
to
find
new
unspoiled
pastures,
has
openedup
walking
to
appear
at
the Cleopatra
Massage
Parlour
early this
year,
to
advise
its
southern region
by
building
hotels
in
most
of
the
major
towns,
organizing
'masseuses'
to
use
condoms
while
having
sex
with their
customers.
While
the
tourist
agenciesand
travel
bureaus and
encouraging
home
crafts
like
carpet
r.,n-.n.,;""
to
contain
thespread
of
AIDS in
Thailand
deserves
total
support,
and
cloth
manufacture.
Most
of
the
communities
have
also been
provided
answer lies
in
other,
morecoruprehen5ive
stratf'gies,
elirfftPfj
with
airfields,
and
flights
from
Paris
to
the south
of
the
country
are
now
the
kind
of tourism
thatbrings
Thailand a major
part
of
its
exchange
possible.earnings. 
~ ~ e v e r t h e l e s s 
the
arrival
of
thousands of
touri<;ts
every
year
is
notReturning to
India, I
learned that the
Environment Ministry
has
in
tothat
is
universally
welcomed
throughout
the south. Commented one residentthe
tourism authorities,
and
thathotels
will
now
be
built allover
the
country's 
ofT.:lmanrasset,
"In reality only
a
few
people
prO'ipered
with
the
opening
beaches
at
the
200-metre
high
tide
line,
reduced from 500
metres.
The Tourism 
up of
tourism
in
our
area.
Most of
these:'
he
claimed,
"comefrom
out,>iele
the
Ministry's
Visit India
1991
campaign
appears to
be
directed to community,
the businessmen, entrepreneurs, merchantsfrom
the
north who
beaches
and
other ecologically fragile
zones. 
have
the
moneyto
build
hotels,
tourist
agencies
and
souvenir
sr,ops:'
Even
thE'
Gabriela
Petra
da
Rosd
has
recently
sent
us
d
copy of her study
on
the
mutual
staff
who
run
thehotels, the
g u i d e ~ 
who
ferry
tourists
aroundthe
area are
flot
thredt
that the
tourism indw,try
in
Goa
and
the
Kaiga
power
plant
po"e to
each 
loca
s,
complained
another, since the
owner's
of the
nf'W
establishments
favour
other.
While it
is
bound
to
arouse
c o n t r o v e r ~ y , 
WP
n e v e r t h e l e s ~ 
feel
it
is
an 
their people
over
the
original inhabitants.
aspect
of
the
emerging debate
on
both nuclear
and
tourism
i"sues
At
the
same
time
the
electricity, running
water, dndroads
that
were
largely
introduced into
the
community'
a ~ . l 
rf'sult of
t o u r i ~ m 
are
noticeably
lacki
ng
fonrd
dl/N'It'<lf
Goa.
Pedophilia,
AIDS,
nuclear
energy,
tourism. It
is
time
we
discardedthe
blinkered view
that
all things
are
unconnected,
that
vve
can
deal
with
various
issues
in
isolation.
Such
a
vievv
has
precisely
ledto 
INSIDE
our
current global situation
of economic,
social and
ecological
imbalance.
The
Tourism
and
Politics
.... ............................. ........
4 
need
for
holistic
government
olanning
is
obvious.
Till
such
time though,
the
India
News
&
Views
..... ,...................................
7 
,mel
to
;:jet
uf'ativE'lv,
is
rill
thE'
morf'.
J<tvillt5
[he
Jpllilii'l.
............................................
9 
I ~ ' e t w o r k 
News
Roundup
................... .........
12 
Paul Gonsalves 
 
2
,o"rd.
pagl?
I
in
the
outlying
aredS
of
Tamanrasset
which
house
the
majority of
its
original
residents. The
centre
of
town,
"our tourist
show-piece"
as
one
person
called
it, and the
hotels,
cafes
and shops
that surround
it
form
a
small private
enclave
ofdevelopment, all
the more
disturbing
because
of
the poverty
which
surrounds
it. Many
townspeople
have
also
suffered
because
of
the
rise in
prices
which
have
come
from
increased demand
and
the presence
of
new,
richer
customers.
"With
the
rush
to
build
newhotels,
shops
etc.,the
price of a plot of
land
has
increased
tenfold;'
commented another
resident.
"None
of
us
can
afford
to
builda
decenthouse
even
if
we
manage
to
buy sufficient ground
sincematerials,
which
we
have
to
import
from
the
north,
have
also risen in
price:'
In
the
market-place
staple
foods
like
flour,
sugar,
milkpowder
and
tea are
also
more expensive.
At
times
of
food
shortage,
which
is
quite frequent due
to
the
distance
oflamanrasset
from
the
north of
the
country
and
the
difficulty oftransporting
goods
across
the desert,
it
is
the
hotels
that
are
always
provided
first
since they
have
the money to
procure
any
remaining
stocks.
As
a
consequence
of
these factors
the
majority
of
people who
have
little
or
no
access
to
the spin-offs from
tourism
are
materially
worse
off
than
before
its
arrival, a
phenomenon witnessed
in
many
of
the towns
in the
Algerian
Sahara
which
have
seen
a similar
expansion
in
recent
years.
At
the
same
time
the
older people of
these
towns
have
come to
resent
the
arrival
in
their community of
thousands
of tourists
many
of whom
show
little
respect
for the
traditions
and
customs
of
the
inhabitants
around them.
''l\s a
oractising
Muslim:'
complained one
resident
from
EI
Golea,
a
town further north
themselves
our
streets,
drinking
beer in
our
hotels
and
clicking
cameras
at
chi
Idren:'
Invariably
as
a
result
of
tourism
alcohol
has
become
.
in
the
south,
which
more than
anything
has
angered parents
who
are
worried
habit. In
a
region
of
the
countrv
where
Islam
is
still
very
much
in
evidence
this
issue
has
become
a
real
between
theadvocates
of "modernism"
and those
who wish
to
preserve
the
society
as
it
is.
Also
the
increasing
wage
differences between
those
involvedinthe
traditionalactivities of
the
area,
like agriculture
and
herding,
and
those
fortunate
enoughto
profit
from
tourism
has
introduced a
note
of further
discord
into
once settled
and
close-knit communities.
The
traditional hospitality
of the
Sahara,
complain
many
residents,
is
changing
to
something
more selfish
and
commercial.Incidents of theft
and
robbery
have
also
increased
in
recent
years
resulting
in
an
expansion
of
the
police
force
throughout
the
southernregion."We
are
throughout
the
south;' commented one
resident
of
for
the
better.
Even
our
have
become
commercialized
are
less
a
celebration
of our
traditions,
a
gesture
of
respect towards
our
ancestorsthan
a
means
of hringing
us
monty
Tourism
it
is
true
has
brought
hard
into
the
country;/
he
concluded, "but
the
results are
not
as
beneficial
as
government
and
the businessmen
would like
to
maintain:' •
Karnataka's
Massive
project 
The
government
of
Karnataka
has
decided
to
seek
financial
assistance
from
theOverseas
Economic
C(H)peration
Fund
(OECF)
of
Japan
for
a
Rs
162.40
crore
tourism development project, out of which
Rs
62.40
crores
would
be
in the
private
sector. The
objective
is
to make Karnataka
a major tourist destination
inthe '90s.The state
Tourism,
Information
andsaid
that
the
government
had
had
subsequently
scaled
it down,
keeping
in view
the
resources
constraint.Over
Rs
8
crores
had
been
allocated
to
the
department oftourism,
Karnataka
State
Tourism
Development Corporation
(KSTDC)
for
adding
more
rOOmS
to
its
existing
hotels,
inducting
fresh buses
into
the fleet,
constructing
roadsidefacilities,developing
adventure
tourism
and
for
publicity
and
training.Important
fairs and
festivals
would
also be
supported
by
the
department of tourism
so
as
toattract
foreign
and
Indian
tourists.
A unique
feature
of
the
project according
to
Mr
Moi
Iy,
was
the proposal to
reserve
for
the
private
sector
certain activities like
setting
up
new hotels
and
running luxury
cars
and
amusement
parks.
The
private
sector
could
also
organise
luxury
cruises,
starting
fromGoa
and
going down
the western
coast,
while stopping
at
places
like
Karwar,
Malpe, Mangalore
and
Kovalam,
so
that
the
tourists
could
sample
different
cuisines
and
cultures,
including
art
forms
like
Yakshagana
and
Kathakali
The
minister
noted that
an
attempt
was
being
made
to
get
funds from the
OECF
for
such ventures
by
the
private
sector.
The
project,
he
added,
was
likely
to
be
implemented
over
a
five-year
period coinciding with
the
Eighth
Plan.The
KSTDC
managing
director, Mr
Shantanu
Consul,
noted that
a
study
by
a
leadingconsultancyfirm
had estimated
that
based on
the
originally
projectedinvestments
of
Rs
209.37crores, the
project would
generate
a
return
of
Rs
755crores
within
10
years
of
commencement
of
implementation, including a direct
return
of
over
Rs
354
crores
and
an
indirect
one
(by
way
of
spin
ofts
likeemployment generation following
larger
tourist inflows) of
over
Rs
401
crores.The netvalue addedonthe
investment
of
Rs
209.37 crores
would,
he
said.
work
out
to
1:1.2.
THE
ECONOMIC
TIMES,
24
February, 1990
Incentives to Hotels
The government has decided to give a package of incentives to
the
hotel industry in an effort to accelerate the development oftourism infrastructure in
the
country.The incentives include exempting new approved hotels set upin
the
hill stations and
other
areas from expenditure tax for
10
years. These hotels will also be given
50
per cent exemption fromincome tax.These decisions were taken at the first meeting of
the
cabinetcommittee on export strategy andperforman.cepresided over by
the
Prime Minister, Mr V P Singh.The Commerce and Tourism Ministry, Mr
Arun
Nehru, said
the
India Tourism Development Corporation
(ITDC)
will bepermitted to import 300 air-conditioning units for use in touristcoaches
at
a concessional duty of 50 per cent. Restrictions onphotography of historical and archaeological monuments willalso be relaxed.Under
the
package,
the
tourism ministry will undertake anintensive development of
few
suitable sites which have potentialfor adventure and beach tourism. This will be done in cooperation with
the
concerned state governments.The government is also likely to take some decisions in
the
near
future regarding simplification of immigration and visaprocedures.
TIMES OF
INDIA,
10
April,
1990
11
BOOK
REVIEW
Exodus Revisited
to his own values, industry, leisure and future designs. His own
The Tourist. A New Theory
of
the Leisure
Class.
Dean MacCannell, New
past within the West, and the past and present of all others,
he
York, Schocken Books Inc.,
1976;
London, The Macmillan PressUd.,
1976,
interprets and reconstructs into modern cultural heritage.
X
214
pp.
In Chapter
2,
MacCannell analyses
the
sightseeing processwithin its structure of attraction, a relationship between
the
MacCannell has achieved in 'The Tourist' what social scientiststourist,
the
sight and
the
marker. The tourist himself does notof
the
structuralist school and functionalist lineage, from Emileanalyse
the
sight.
he
apprehends at
the
spontaneous level
of
hisDurkheim to Louis Dumont, failed to arrive at, viz.
the
deepconsciousness
the
sight in its otherness. MacCannell relates
it
structure
that
holds Western civilization together.
An
ethnoto
the
differentiation of
the
experience deep at
heart
in
the
graphy of modern SOciety eluded them. "Modern SOciety is justexercise. What
is
important
is
the semiotic of attraction, a processtoo complex; history has intervened and smashed its structure",by which a sight -a sign which represents something torecalls MacCannell in his introduction (p.l), a brief statement ofsomeone -is converted into a marker of profound meaning.Professor Levi-Strauss at Maxim's Restaurant in Paris in
1968.
"NoHis final chapter takes up again the issues of theory andmatter how hard one searched, one would never find a coherentmethod in re-presenting
the
world: its people, institutions andsystem
of
relations in modern society". The structuralvalues, through the eyes of modernity and extends it
to
the Thirdfunctionalist framework of Parsons, celebrating AmericanWorld' -an unconscious exercise, an exercise of pleasure andholism, was too harmonious for a conflict-ridden world. His ownimage making. Going beyond
it
and behind it -to the deepstudents abandoned
it
for
other
methods of interaction
and
structures -MacCannell restores
the
'sacredness' of
the
exchange in everyday experiences. They abandoned
the
totalityexperience, its unity and holism, With sacredness returnsof society. Class analysts were always
there
in
the
Marxist fold.religion by the back door, so to
say,
and establishes
the
hierarchyPrimitive accumulation of colonial practise and imperialistof values and stability of
the
world order. The invisible religiondomination of finance capital explained
the
modern structureof secular man
(as
Thomas Luckmann pu tit) is traced back to itsof society in classical and neo-Marxist traditions. But that wasroots and made visible in
the
tourist and his sightseeing.and is too economistic and reductive
an
explanation. Theirreformers found so many bundles of signifiers in SOciety
that
w.
R.
O'Silva
they mistook trees for the forest. Louis Dumont came to India,
(Or
D'Silva teaches Social Anthropology at Goa University)
the
representative of non-modern world, in search of mirrorimages and foils of reflection, to re-establish a sense of identity
in
modern civilisation.
Strange Bedfellows
MacCannell seems to succeed in this book in restoring unity
The Politics
of
Tourism
in
Asia.
linda
K Richter. University
of
Hawaii
to modernity. Amidst the disorganized fragments, "alienating,
Press,
2840 Kolowalu
St.,
Honolulu,
HI
96822. 1989.x
+
263
pp,
$24.Cloth. Notes, bibliography, index, list
of
abbreviations, tables.
wasteful, violent, superficial, unplanned, unstable and inauthentic"
(p.2),
he
discovers a unity. Not
that
all humans
are
Tourism, all innocence
on
first glance, is in fact a
near
relativeessentially
the
same 'underneath/,
but
that
all cultures
are
of some serious global activities, foreign policy and foreigncomposed of
the
same elements
in
different combinations.relations.
It
is indeed, as
authe>r
Richter states, a "crude
but
The unity is established through
an
analysis of what Macreliable barometer of international relations," This book
is
basedCannell calls middle-class culture
or
modern mass leisure.
It
is"on
the
premise that tourism is a highly political phenomenon,summarized in
the
universalizing experience of
the
tourist.
the
implications of which have
been
only rarely perceived andModern values expressed through tourist culture bring out
the
almost nowhere fully understood."total design of society in a single framework.
To
that
extent
the
The book does much more
than
simply pose interesting andold divisions between Communist East and Capitalist West
on
seldom-considered facts: tourism is
the
largest industry in
thethe
one
hand, and
the
new divisions between
the
developedworld; tourism has been used as a political weapon by the Unitedworld and
the
Third World
on
the
other
hand, are transcended.States; tourism precedes
the
normalization of relations betweenHe derives from
the
touristic sightseeing, culturally, valuestwo countries. The book is significant because
it
goes on to askembodied in work-in-general rather
than
from
the
productionnot only "why?"
but
also "so what?",system, materially,
the
value of commodities. Conversion of
the
The case studies of areas mostly explored firsthand by
the
work of others into 'do-it-yourself amusement,
or
shift fromauthor through
her
travels and interviews, consider
the
People'smaterial production to cultural production of values, unitesRepublic of China,
the
Philippines (under both Marcos andmodernity.Aquino), Thailand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
the
Tourist, in MacCannell, has two meanings.
It
designates actualMaldives, Nepal, and Bhutan, and form
the
central core of
the
tourists. sight-seers, going round
the
world in search ofbook. Richter considers
the
reasons a government uses tourismexperience. There is
another
sense in which the tourist repreto advance its policies and
the
political and economic problemssents the modern-man-in-general and thereby becomes its valuewithin a country that can prevent tourism from functioning ascentre.expected. These seven chapters are nicely framed by
an
introThe tourist differentiates
the
whole world into aduction on
the
politics of tourism and a final chapter onDevelopment and modernization are roughly
the
same asalternative strategies (or tourism development.differentiation. Sightseeing becomes
the
ritual performanceThe 46-page bibliography is composed mostly of books andboth at home,
the
world of
early
industrialization, and the worldarticles,
but
it also includes lists of official publications, videos,at large,
the
world of pilgrimage. The Sightseeing middle classspeeches, and interviews. holds this experience together into a single whole. In this exercise
the
middle class sightseer subordinates the other people
from Third World Resources,
Vol.
.'i
(2),
19B'; 
 
I
10
Hippies
in Gokarna 
The scum of Western Society the unwashed, scantily clad hippiesseem
to
be
focusing their attention towards other safe havens, Goa havingbecome a
bit
too
hot
for them.And the Ilew safe haven they have found is
among
one
of
the
holiestspots
of
Hindu
mythology
-Gokarna. A
small
sleepy town on the westcoast in Karnataka, Gokarna houses
the
famous Mahabaleshwar templewhere
ttindus
perform the last rites
of
their
near and dear ones. Muchto the disgust
of
these pilgrims, hordes
of
semi-nude hippies can
be
seen
sunning
themselves on the beach
which
is
hardly
a stone's throw
from
the temple.
"t)ut
its
good for us', says Abdul Rashid, 45, a
coconut
vendor
at
thebeach at whose
makeshift
stall
at
least ten
of
these 'rebels'
sit munching
tender
coconut
between puffs
at strong smelling
chillums.
Surprisingly the local populace seem
Lo
share his view. The
tiny
townnow boasts
of
a
couple
of
swank ice-cream parlours where one can relishfresh pistanchio ice cream
or
watch latest Western thrillers on one
of
thenumerous close
circuit
television
networks
that
have
sprung
up.
Although many
of
these hippies are those outcasts who have moved
out
from
neighbouring
Goa
after
the friendly State raised
its
eyebrows
at
their
vagabond and lawless tactics,
the
proximity
of
Gokarna
(l85
kilometres from
\:>anjim)
is obviously a boon for
them.
"We'll never
cometo
Goa, Your police are brutes;' exclaimed 2&yearold self-styled sanyasin Michelle,
But
the lady, who was clad in the shortest
of
short,,;
and
a
hosom-hugging
' I ~ s h i r t 
was
at
a loss when Questionedas
to
what
police
brutality
she suffered
duringher
one
month
jaunt
at
Calangute.According
to
a local police officer
liquor
and
other
soft
drugs
like
grass
and
charas are regularly transported from Goa
to
aid, as
he
put
it
meditation.
A tall
frenchman
clad
in crisp
saffron sits
at
the
gate
of
the
temple, eyes closed in the bliss
of
approaching
nilvana. "He comes Quiteoften;' explains the
temple
priest "but
unfortunately
we
cannot
let him
in:' Fearing the ire
of
the orthodox, the doors
of
the
temple have
virtually
been barred
to
all whites,
But
Gokama
is
a
poor substitute
for golden Goa.
And
they will
comerushing
back to Goa when the local
hospitality
wears
off
alongwith
their
new found taste tor 'nirvana'.
THE HERALD
(Panjim),
19
March,
1990
Tourism
lk
Aids
in
Thailand
The survey
of the
policies and actions taken
by the
Thai authoritiesand public organisations
to
monitor
and prevent the spread
of
AIDS
in
the sphere
of
commercialized
sex
indicated
that
these have been
almost
exclusively oriented
to the
local
sex workeIS,
male
or
female, rather
than
their
customers, whose
health and
conduct
remain virtually unchecked. This approach is
congruent with past
policies regarding
prostitution
in
Thailand, Ever since
it
was
first
outlawed
in
1960,
virtually theonly
persons against
whom
the lawwas applied were the
prostitutes
themselves. ProcureIS, brothelowners and customeIS were rarely,
if
evec
apprehended
or
punishedfor their role in
the furthering
of
prostitution.
When
AIDS
appeared
on
the scene,
theauthorities
were
similarly
reluctantto
take
any
actions which could inconvenience
the
tourists and
thus
negativelyaffect
the tourist
industry.
hik
Cantil,
in
Alii/dIs
uf
Tourism
Vol.
i5,
1 ~ 6 8 
Affliction
and Reproach
The
alternative is
inescapable:
either
I
am
a
traveller
in
ancient
times, a
nd
faced
with
a
prodigious
spectacle
whichwould
be
almost
entirely
unintelligible
to
meandmight,
indeed,
provokeme
to
mockery
or
disgust;
or
1 am
a
traveller
of
our
own
day,
hastening
in
search
of
a vanished
reality;
In
either
case I
am theloser
-
and
more
heavily
than
one
might
suppose;
for
today, as 1
go
groping
amongthe
shadows, 1 miss,
inevitably, the
spectacle
that
is
now
taking
shape.
Aiyeyes,
or
perhaps
my
degree
of
humanity,
do
not
equipme
to
witness
that
spectacle;
and
in
thecenturies
to come,
when
another traveller
revisits
this
same place,
he
too
may
groan aloud
at
the
disappearance
of
much that
1
should have
set down,
but
cannot.
I am
thevictim
of
a
double
infirmity:
what
I see is an
afflication
to
me;
andwhat
I do
not
see; a
reproach.
-
Claude
Levi-Strauss,
in
Tristes Tropiques
Golden Triangle
The agreement
by
the
military authorities of Thailand and
Burma
to
jointly
develop
the
'golden triangle' could transform
the
remote
opium-producing
region on
their
common
border.
If
the
plan
materialises,
the
poppy
fields
of Northern Thailand and
Burma
could
give
way
to
tourism and
development
projects.
Thai military officials
who
returned
from
a trip
to
Rangoou said
the
project
involves
developing
tOUl
ism
and
'other
businesses'
to
give
farmers
an
alternative
to
poppy
cultivation,
opium
and
heroin
prodilction.
"It
is
our hope
that
such
a joint
undertaking
will
promote the tourist industry
in
the golden
triangle to benefit
all
three countries;'
said Gen
Pat Akanibutr,Inspector-General of
the
Thai armed
forces.
THE
HERALD,
Panjim,
18
March,
1990
Packaged Bliss
The problem with paradise is that it soon becomes boring.Established religions have never satisfactorily answered
the
question, 'What
do
people do in Heaven?' The disembodiedspirituality of the Christian Heaven and the interminable groupsex of the Islamic paradise are enervating prospects for all butconfirmed quietist mystics
or
inexhaustible satyrs. The humanmind seems unable to conceive of any purely pleasurableactivity
(or
blissful inactivity) that would not eventually pall.
We
should not expect the tourist industry to have solved the problemthat has defeated the world's theologians -even
if
it does claim
to
offer
us
a variety of paradises to suit every pocket.
from The
Colden
Hordes, Louis Turner
&
John Ash
Blinkered Vision
Those policymakers who make tourism policy by simplyrepeating a common formula may
think
they have provided theanswer, but without comparing, searching and probing theexperience of other societies,
that
answer
is
surely limited and
.....
",,1'"
..
,,:,,11
' h ~ 
, , ' ~ r > p ­
'-.V'-oG...l.U
1't
\....J.J
V'-J
",
. l V . . i . . 1 ~ . 
from
The Politics
of
Tourism
in
Asia,
linda
K
Richter
3
US
Ecologists
Tour
India 
Linking the Narmada Valley Dams, the
Tehri
Dam, the Bhopal
gas
tragedy, a
team
of
eight American environmentalists questioned the role
of
US
corporateinvolvement
and
the
us
G C N e r r i m e n t ' ~ 
support
lor
World
Bank
projects in India,Expressing support for community
based
organisations and protests such
as
in the Narmada
Valley,
the
team
called
on
the Indian Government
and
the WorldBank to pursue a socially and environmentally just development
policy_
"Indian environmentalists
are
absolutely right to question developmentpriorities here';
said
team member Richard Krejsa. "In the United
States
andthroughout the world these megd-projects tend to cause mega-disaslers':
The
group met with Governmental officials, environmental activists
and
localresidents, finding fault with Union Carbide's handling of the
gas
tragedy, theWorld
Bank's
unyielding support for the '\Iarmada Valley Development Projectand the Indian
GCNernment's
pursuit
of
central
ised
high technology
and
capitalintensive development projects.the Narmada Valley, the group learned of the determination of theresidents not to be displaced. Neither the World Bank nor the IndianGovernment
had
consulted the local population before beginning work on thedam.
No
relocation plans had been formulated and the project
is
underwayalthough good land
is
not available
as
compensation for more than two lakhpeople of the river valley, The group saw the current protests
at
the NarmadaValley
as
a logical response to the situation.
"When
the people
are
locked out
of
the decision making
process,
they
have
no
other option, but
to
take mattersinto their own
h a n d s ' ~ 
commented team member
Sara
Nelson.Referring to the Bhopal
GasTragedy,
Dr
Andy Smith of the American BaptistChurch
said
"Carbide officials
have
systematically
evaded
the enormity
of
thisdisaster, They
have
misled the public and little relief
has
reached the victims':In
Tehri
the team heard at least four dynamite blasts
at
the dam sitea moratorium on construction."The problems
wehave
observed
in
India
are
not isolated.
They
are
occurringin aimost all
areas
of
the world';
said
Josh
Kariiner,
an
environmental journalist
with
the team. "Citizens' groups
are
actively addressing these
issues
not
only
in India and the
US,
but also
in
Latin America, Europe, South
East
Asia
andAfrica':
VENTURE TOURS,
New Delhi
r
Pacific Paradise
I
No mistake about
it,
Christopher
Cocl;?er's
task
as
Tonga's
chief
I
tourism
promoter
is
a hefty
one.
True.
the South Pacific islandsoffer everything
Tahiti has
in the way
of
palms and
beaches,
even
jf
a political storm
is
clouding them
at
the moment.
Stm.
yearlyarrivals
of
11.000
'Visitors
by
air and
13,000
by
sea
to King
Taufa'ahau
lI.1poU
lV's domain
is
causing hospitality among thewell-proportioned Polynesians to wear
thin
Sunny
Tongans
recoil from phalanxes
of
camera-clicking tourists who invadetheir privacy and. ignoring the Sunday
laws,
get
restless
on theordained day
of
rest.
But Cocker.
26
is
stout
of
heart.
By
way
of
an 'Awareness Program" aimed
at
school-children
he
says,
"We
presenr a general overview
of
the significan t benefits
of
tourism" A graduate
of
hocel training in Brisbane, he
is
alsonudging
Tongans
"to improve cheir host-guest relationship,"
Plans are
afoot
for
a new international terminal
and
JOo-room
hotel at the airport.
"Tonga
has
not
reached the
stage
of
resistingtourism,"
says
Cocker thoughtfully "But
we
don't want to
do
that too
much"
ASIAWEEK, 20 April, 1990
:;
",
: !
In
Quotes
r!il
Stephen
Haseler.
Lecturer, City Polytechnic. London
"j
don't like the idea that
we
are subjects, Why should
we
beanyone's subjects'!
We
should all be citizens,
I
can't think
of
asingle
a d v a n t a ~ e
in hiMng a monarchy in a modem country
The
a r ~ u m e n t 
that
it
b r i n ~ s 
in tourists
is
overdone. Countries likeFrance conNnue
to
attract tourists. Anyway
do
we
want to
beseen
as
a theme park. a coumry where people
look
at
us
for
our
antique and quaint
ways?"
Editorial
in
THE TIMES
OF
INOlA,
23
february.
1990
That
cultural crosstalk knows
no
boundaries
is
s u ~ g e s t e d
by the
case
of
the new world visitor to india who gushed delight
at
having
seen
the
Aqa
Khan by moonlight. Another
case
of
Jet
lag relates to the tourist couple who.
on
arriving
at
the historicbattlefield
of
Runnymede
of
Magna Carta
fame,
asked the guide
when
that celebrated document had been signed. and
were
told
1215.
Whereupon the husband consulted his watch and
s j ~ h e d . 
"Gee,
Martha.
We
just missed
it
by
10
minutes"
The
Great
Elephant March
Dear Tourist Friend,
While
we identify your
real
spirit (certainly
Wf'
believe the humanness
is
nottotally dried up,
be
it in the North or the South) to know our culture, we inviteyour attention to some danger signals that our tourism business
Kerala,
as
any other people,
has
its own culture. Dialogue among differentcultures,
is
necessary
and
healthy.
But
when culture
i ~
made instant
and
~ o l d 
for dollars, it
is
an
entirely different matter.
Festivals,
pooram, folk
arts,
all
are
part
and
parcel
of
our culture. In every culture every festival or folk art
has
itsown context.
For
example, Trichur Pooram festival
is
of April-May, On
am
is
of
August-September. They
have
their own socio-historical
reasons.
When a folkart or pooram
is
taken out of a particular cultural context it
loses
its
essence
and
soul.
The
people who perform them do it artificially.
They
can't infuse theirinto
such
buffooneries,
So
what
is
exhibited
as
culture
is
soulless
deadmatter,The
state
is
eager to earn some dollars, since its
are
few
to
fill
upthe economic, social and cultural vaccum, createdits own anti-peopledevelopment
Keralawas
rich in natural resources,
the resources
dwindled. Now the
state
i ~
short
of
grains, short of vegetables, short of
all
necessities,
Our
agricultu
re
is
stunted.Industrial growth
is
stagnant
Only
the tertiary sector comprising education,health
etc.
is
inueasing. All our resources
have
hepn dGlllled.
In
its
placr: the
state
is
flooded with modern consumer articles,
In
short Kerala
is
a
of
multinationals
and
transnationals. More than three
million
unemployed
...
The
state
instead of trying to solve the social
and
economic
issues
that hauntthe people, make the people more fools
and
ask
them to sing and dance tountimely culture calls, This
is
in the name of culture,
in
the name of tourism!The
state
tries to hille the
real
state of the people
by
staging Great ElephantMarches, It
is
betrayal of the people dnd
ppople'<,
culture.Dear tourist friend, we request you to note the
real
motive behind the GreatMarches,
Please
take pains to explore the
real state
of our oeoDle
and
by
initiating
such
a normative stefl,
we
dnd enter Into
a
new dawn
at
Prathikarana Sangham,
(A
Movement
for
People\
Cause)
16-
Vanchi
Lodge,
Trichur-21.
Kerala