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Alternative Network Letter Vol 7 No.1-Apr 1991-EQUATIONS

Alternative Network Letter Vol 7 No.1-Apr 1991-EQUATIONS

Ratings: (0)|Views: 8 |Likes:
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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16
We invite Network members to contribute to the Network Letter
NETWORK
by
sharing their work, ideas and plans through Ihese pages.
NEWS
Communication is vital to the life
of
a Network, especially when
ROUNDUP
physical distances cannot easily
be
bridged by closer contacts.
T r a i n i n ~ 
for
Tourism
Activists
coursefor
tourism activists
was
held in
Thailand
between
Sorry,
Readers!
1991.
Sponsored
by
the Ecumenical
Coalition
on
Third
World
collaboration with
Life
Travel
Service
(Thailand)
and
This
issl1-e
of ANL
has been
delayed
by
over
2 months,
\L\.jUIlOUIC
Tourism
Options),
the
course
attracted
16
participants
for a
number
of
reasons. We
sincerely
apologise to
countries,
and
one
from
the
Centre for Environmental Training
inTourism,
ourreaders
for
this inordinate
delay,
andhope
never­
The
participantsmet
at the
StudentChristian
Centre,Bangkok,
where
they were
theless
you
will
enjoy reading
it.
introduced
to
the course
objectives,
its
structure
and
content.
To
begin
with, 
the
course
examined
the
global context
of
tourism
issues,
covering
areassuch
The
good
news is
that
the
next
issue is
already
unde
as
aproaches to
development,
economic
ideologies, Third World
poverty,
way,
hopefully
within
the
next 30
days. As always,
your 
injustice
and
related
issues. 
comments
are
most welcome.
Following
this,
participants
separated
into
two
groups
for
exposure visits:
onewent
to Chiangmai
in
the
north,
the
other
to
Phuket
in the
South.
Guided
byexperienced
local
hosts,
they
were
able
to
see
the
'other
side'
of
the
tourism
industry.
The
exposure
lasted
for
a
week.Returningto
Bangkok,
they regrouped
at
the Women's
Education
and
Training
Resources
Centre,
on the
outskirts of
thecity.Reflectionson
the
exposure
visits
were
followed
up
by
an
excellent audio-visual
show
produced
by
ECTWT
as
part
BALI:
A
PARADISE
CREATED,
by
Adrian
Vickers.
Periplus
Editions/ne,
1442A
of a
Resource
Kit.
Walnut Street
No
206, Berkeley,
California
94709,
7989,
240
pp.
Invited
resource persons,
along
with
the
training
team,
assisted
participants"Over
three
centuries
the West
has
constructed
a
complex
and
gorgeous
in
their
learning
about specific
toursm
issues:
socia-economic
and
cultural
image
of
theisland
that
has
emergedto
take over
even
Balinese
thought:"
Thisimpacts,
political implications,
sex
tourism,
child prostitution,
environmental
book
provides
a
fresh
insight into a traditional
island
which
is
changing
concerns,
and
so
on.
The
experience
of
local groups
in
places
like
Goa,
Bali
dramatically
in response
to
contemporary
life
and
a
massive
tourist
invasion.
and
the
Philippines
was
presented
by
representatives from the
groups.
Each
Adrian
Vic.kers
bridgesthe gapbetween "general
travel
writing"
and
trai nee also
presented thei
r
experience
of
deal
i
ng
with
tourism
in
their
country,
"inaccessible
academic
work" with a historic cultural
perspectiveon
tourismlaying
the
basis
for
possible
future
plans
of action.
and
social change
in
Bali.The
participants
also
had
an
opportunity
tolearnabout the
work
of
ECTWTand
its
international
networks.
Following inputs
on
programme
planning
and
·v.(OURISM AND
DEVElOPMENT
IN INDIA,
by
Suhita
Chopra.
Ashish
management,
each
trainee
took time
to
develop concrete
plans of
action
to
Publishing House,
8/87,
Punjabi
Bagh,
New
Delhi
170026,
1991,
261
pp.
be
implemented
on
returning
home.
Towards
the
end, the
course
was
evaluatedKhajuraho,
a
remote
tourist
resort
in
Madhya
Pradesh
is
used
as
a
case
study
by
the
participants
and
organisers separately.to emphasise the
socia-economic implications of
tourism
promotion
andIt
is
difficult
torecapturethe
spirit
andessence
of
the
course.
Overall,
though,development
programmes. The
findings
show
that tourism
has
not
helped
to
thisexperience
confirms
the
need
and
validity
of
such courses,
and
it
is
hoped
build
an
egalitarian
democratic
society,
rather the
destructive
effects
have
that
this
would
be
thefirst
of
many
more
tocome.
favoured
already
advantagedsectors
of
society. Planning from
an
urbanThe
training
team
consisted
of
Paul
Gonsalves,
Piengporn Panutampon
and
economic
perspective,
without
consideringrural-cultural
factors in
Khajuraho
Pholpoke,under
the
direction of
Dr
Koson
Srisang.
While
the
list of
raises
serious
doubts
about
such
planning
processes.
resource persons
is
too
lengthy
to cover here,
mention
must
be
made
of
the
presentationsmade
by
Roland
Martins. Norma
Tinambacan
and
Dr.
I(W:ln<;ll{mo
TOURISM,
by
Rob Davidson. Pitman Publishing,
128
Long Acre,
London
WC2E
Atibodhi.
9AN,
1989,
199
pp.
Write
for
details
to:
ECTWT,PO
Box
24,
Chorakhebua,
10230.
This
is
a
text
book covering
the
basics
of
traveland
tourism for
use
in the
wide
variety
of
courses
in
schools
and
colleges where
travel and
tourism
is
featured.
The
book
coversareas
like definitions;
history
of tourism;
travel and
Scrutinising Goan
Tourism 
transport;
accommodation;
impacts
of
tourism
on
environment,
economy,
culture
and
community;
and
tourism
planning
and
management.
Luxury
Beach-Resort
Tourism
in
Goa, India:
The
'Dark'
Side
of
'Development'
and
Growth.
by
Menezesand
Lobo,
2nd Edition
(revised),
1991.
S
Ganigan
&
TOURISM
AND
DEVELOPMENT
IN
THE
THIRD
WORLD,
by
John
Lea.
Miriithu Publishing
House,
London.
EngJand,
103
pp. 
Routledge,
11
New
Felter Lane,
London
EC4P
4EE,
1988,88
pp.
This book
covers in
a
comprehensive
way
the
trends
of
tourism
develop
ment
in
India
and Goa
in
particular.
It provides insights
into
the
govern
This
book
investigates the
complex
matrix of
advantages and disadvantages
ments
policies;
public
I
private sector
investments;
propaganda; a
that tourism brings,
with
special
reference
to
the
Third World.
John
Lea
looks
detailed
investigation of irregularities
and
corruption
within
the
ind
closely
at
the
general
impacts
of
tourism(economic, environmental
and
cultural)
ustry,
and also
the
social
and economic repercussions
of
luxury
tourism.
and
concludes that
the short-term gains
are
outweighed
by
the long-term
losses.
The
role
of public participation
in
national tourism
planning
is
emphasised,
Available at
EQUATIONS.
Rs.
100
+
postage.
in this
concise
but
comprehensive
primer
on
Third
World
Tourism.
Published
by:
Equitable
Tourism Options
(EQUATIONS), 96, H Colony, Indiranagar
Stage
I,
Bangalore 560 038,
INDIA.
Design
and
1jJpesetting:
Revisuality Typesetting and Graphic Design,
42/1
Lavelle
Road,
Bangalore,
INDIA
ALTERNATIVE
NETWORK
LETTER
A Third World Tourism
Critique
S
For
Private Circulation
Only
Vol. 7
No.1
April
1991
even
years
ago,
a significant
event
took
place,
that
would
have
deep
and far-reaching
implications
for
people concerned
with
Third
W:Jrld
tourism,
StayAM'"ay 
a
concern
then in
its infancy.
The
Ecumenical
Coalition
onThird
World
ven
if
RajivGandhi
had
not
spent
a
few
idyllic
days
there in
1987,
theTourism,
an
international body
based
in Thailand,
sponsored
the
first
Lakshadweep
islands
would
have
emerged
as
prime tourism
real
estate.
International
Workshop
on
Alternative
Tourism
(with a
Focus
on
Asia).
More
E
Sooner
or
later.than
40
participants
from
20
nations gathered
in
Chiang
Mai
in
April-May
1984,
Thirty-six
unspoilt
coral islands
an
hour's
flying time
west
of
Cochin.
Swaying
seeking new
ways
of
responding
to
the
challenge
of
mass
tourism in
their
palms,
brilliant white
sandbeaches,
and
a
calm
sea
that
could tell
the
spectrum
countries.
a
thing
or
two
about
blues
and greens.
Ideal for
snorkelling, wind-surfing
and
Internationally,
several
new organisations were
formed,
including
EQUATIONS.
sailing. by
any
reckoning,
a
tourism
haven.
I\eetings
were
held,
materials produced,
research
undertaken.
Tourism
issues
And
over
past
three
years,
increasing
numbers
of
and
well-heeled
were
better
understood and..articulated.
Contact
was
established
withIndian
tourists
have
made the
pilgrimage,
many
as
much
as
Rs
3,000
in
distant
places
who
shared
this
concern.
A
new
netvvork
was
a
dav
for
thethe islanders
would opt
for tourism later
-or
never.
people
have
acted
in
various
ways
against
the
excesses
of
mass
tourism.
N
Kunjibee,
secretary
of Mahila
Sangham, the women's
welfare groupEducation campaigns
directed
at
tourists
and
hosts,
public
protests and
archipelago:
' ~ I I 
these
years,
the
people
of
the islands
have
been
demonstrations
..
legal
action,
media campaigns, exposure visits
and
similar
contented
with their
lot
We
don't
want tourism to
swamp
us,
I
don't
want
my
efforts
have
taken
place in
several
tourist
destinations
globally. grandchildren
to
become
hippies
and
drug addicts."
While
such
efforts
have
met
with
varied
_
Lakshadweep
will shortly
become
another
Goa
or
KovaJam
(a
beach resort 
situations whereall options
appeared to
be
closed,
calling
for innovative
action.
near
Trivandrum):'
adds
Kunji
Koya
Thangal, general secretary
of
Lakshadweep's 
When
cases
filed
against the
Ramada
Hotel
in Goa
(on
grounds
of violating Muslim
League
unit. "Our
boys are
now secretly
going
to
Bangaram
(the
island
which
Rajiv
and his
friends
immortalised)
towatch (tourists)
nude sun-bathing,
A
Matter
of
Strategy 
and
they
are
also
likely
to
be
influenced
by
alcohol
and
drugs:'
No
says
Thangal,
emphatically,"we
definitely do not
want
tourism
in these
islands
which
has
been
peaceful all
these
y e a r s ' ~
ecological
regulations)
were
turned down
by
thehighestcourtsof
the
country,
There
is
substance
behind
the
tourist
phobia,
onthreecounts.One,the
Jagrut
Goenkaranchi
Fauz
UGF)
appealed for
a
boycott
of
the
hotel,
as
well
Lakshadweep
is
the
only
place in
India which
has
a
hundred per cent
Muslim
as
launched
a public
campaign
asking
peoplenot
to invest
in
Ramada shares.
population,
and
people
are
conservative,
simple
and low-key.
Two,
they
are
The
effectiveness
of
this measure
can
judged
by
the
recent propaganda attempts
plagued
by
visions
of
how
Goa,
for
instance,
has seen
its
society
changedby
Ramada
International projecting itself
as
an
'environmentally-conscious'
completely, pandering to
tourists.
And
three,
the image
of
tourists:
for
the
corporation.
tourists
are
those
who
smoke
pot,
make love
on the
beach and
walk
Recently,
efforts
have
begunto
explore
the
possibility of
enforCing
international
with
brown
sugar
in
their swimming
gear,
at
least
whenregulations
and
safeguards at
the local level.
If a
hotel company
follows one
wear them.
set
of
standards in Europe
orthe
USA.
its
subsidiaries
in
Third World'
nations
Tourist
haters are
nowto
ban
their
moneyed
ought
to
fulfil similar
norms.
Corporate
accountability
cannot
be
left
to mere
visitors
from
convenience.New
consumer
laws
in
the
European
Community
(after
1992)
Butthe
L a k s h a d ~ p
administration
has
other
ideas.
It
wants to
bring
in more
might
have
a similar
effect
on
thetourism
industry.tourists,
and
develop
more
tourist
sites.
'We
have
four
lakh
square
km
of
sea
around
us
which
abounds
in extremely
a
great
dealto
be
translated
effectively
in
Third World
contexts.
Laws
exist onRealistically
speaking, such
measures-though potentially positive-will
take
rich marine
resources;'
says
S
P
Agarwat
an
Indian Administrative
Services
officer
and
Lakshadweep's
top
bureaucrat,
who
rules from
Kavaratty,
the
union
paper,
servingtheinterest
of a
powerful
minority.
Appealsfor
local
and
territory's
capital. "But
theseare yet tobe
exploited
by
locals
as
it
is
a
questioninternational action, properly publicised,
are
ootent
short-term tactics
hovvever.
of involving
mainlanders
with
trawlers(for
many islanrlers,
the
less
they
have
Backed
up
by hard
evidence,to
do
with
the
Indianmainland,
the better).
We
cannot
have
heavy
industry
With
the
world entering
a
new
phase-post-glasnost,
as
the
density
of population
is
the
third
highest in
the
country:'
Sixteen
ofwill
also
seek
new
directions. Our ability
to
influence
thefuture
will
depend
contd. overleaf
on
how
we
choose
to
addressissues.
More
needs
to
be
done,
and
our
focus
should
be
on
the
local,
on
the
.
INSIDE
The
recently
concluded
training
programme for tourismactivists
is an
obvious
Maha Blunders at MahabodhL .................................
3 
step inthis
direction. No
movement
can
survive
without a
cadre. The
challenge
Nepal Blames
Gulf
Crisis .....
.....................................
7 
oftourism
can
only
be
met
by
a
challenge
to
tourism
that
is
as
deeply
entrenched
Temples and
a
War
..................................................
11
and
wide-spread
as
the
Industry.
A
New
Cannibalism
..
.............................
L
..............
14
Paul Gonsalves
 
2
contd.
from
page 1
.akshadweep's
36
islands are
uninhabited,
and the
rest
cram
45,000
in
a
land
area
the
size
of
a
few
cityblocks.
"I
feel,
says
Agarwal,
"tourism
is
the
future
of
the island:'
And
there
is
hardly
any
chance
of
ruining the
way
of
lifefor
islanders,
says
The
3,000 or
so
tourists who visited the islands
last
year
-
95
percent
of them foreigners
are restricted
to
two
islands, Bangaram
and
Kadmat.And
foreignerscan only
visit
Bangaram. The Lakshadweep
administration
its
offices
in
Cochin
screens
every
visitorto
the
chain,
and
onlythenissuespermits.
Visitors
to
Kadmat
Bangaram
is
the only
exception -
are
expected
tobe
teetotallers
and
conform
to
local
social
norms.
Tourists may
visitLakshadweep
singly,
or
can buy
package
tours
-
both
expensive and strictly
controlled.
In
addition, international
tour
operators
are
a
little
wary of
theisland,
because
the only
way
to
get
there
is
by
ship
or
air
-
through
Vayudoot's
notoriously infrequent
flights-
from
Cochin.
Besides,
says
Agarwal,
"We
are
trying to
seethatthere
is
no mingling
between
the locals
and the tourists
... we
want
to
keep Lakshadweep
as
it
is,
so
there
is
no
question
of
supporting
mass
tourism:'
Which
~ h o u l d 
also
help preserve the
archipelagds
fragi
Ie
ecosystem.
Says
Agarwal: "We
don't
want
outsiders
removing
any
coral
from
OLir
islands:'
But
bring
in
revenue,
instead.
Lakshadweepsurvives
on
coconut
produce,sparse
agriculture
and
tuna
fishing. Most
of
what
is
needed
is
imported
from
Cochin,
against
coconut
products
and
tuna
exports.
Bringing
in
tourists
all
foreigners
have
to
pay
in
dollars
-
could
help
augment
the
island
economy.There
may
not
be
any
other
way.
"Tourism
is
theLakshadweep
without creating
any
environmental
pOllUtiOn;'says
assistant
general
manager
of
Sports,
a
company which promotestourism
in
the
islands.
U!n
the
coming
years
it
will
employmare
people
from
the islands:'
Adds
KunjiKoya,
the
former
Amir,
or
administrator,
of
Kadmat
island:
"Tourism has
woken
up
the
island.
We
don't care whether
the touristsdrink
in
private,
as
long
as
they bring prosperity to the
islands:'
Prosperity,
~ a y 
officiais and
locab,
that
could
be
modelied
on
the
Maldives,
a not-too-distant
neighbour. "Recently
I
was
in
theMaldives;
The islands and
the
topographysimilar
to
Lakshadwpep.
"There also
thelocalsare Muslims,
but
they
don'tcome
into
contact
with
the
tourists
who
are
only allowed
to stay
in
demarcated)
island
resorts:'
Controlled tourism
works
there,
he
says,
planeloads
of
tourists who
go
there
every
day from
Colombo
or
Trivandrum
is
enough.
"What nature
has given
to
Lakshadweep;'
says
"is
much better:'
To
capitalise
011
this
the
administration
is
planning
to
invite global
tenders
to
set
up
resorts
in
the
uninhabited
Suheli
Valiakara
and
Suheli
Cheriakara
islands.
It
is
also thinking
of
inviting
UB
Air
-
non
resident
Indian
industrialist
Vijay
Mallya's
air
taxi
service
from
Cochin
to
Agatti,
the
archipelago's
sole
airport,
and
extending
the
runway to
accommodate
largeaircraft.
Plus,
buying
speed
boats
for
faster
transit
between
AgaUi
and the
r e ~ o r t 
islands.
No
thank
you,
say
tourism's
critics.
"Why
should
the
government corrupt
our
unhurried
lifestyle with
the
introduction
of
tourism?"
Asks
a
senior
Lakshadweep
administrator, who
declines
to
be
identified.
"The government
should
have
invested more
money
on
seafood-based
industries;'
which,
he
says,
is
in
with
incomes plurnmeting."There
is
a
positive side
to
tourism;'
retorts Agarwal.
"A
100
people
have
got
employment.
Moreyoung men
in
the
island:, want
to
go after
tourism.
It
i"
the
on
Iy
way
we
can offer
employment
for
the
locals:'
And
how
about the 'moral'
corruption
of
youngsters,
who
are drawn
by
nude
sun-bathers?
liThe
locals
ha\l'
no
business;'
says Agarwal,
"to
go to
Bangaram and
watch
the
foreigners:
SUNDAY,
16-22
December,
1990
India
and
the
Gulf
War
Although
the
Gulf
war
has
haditsimpact
on
Indian
tourism,
as
it
has
on
tourism
in
many other
parts
of
the world, an
interesting
sidelight
has been
the
role
of
Indian
multinational
hotel
chains
which kept
operations
going
despite
obvious
plwsica.l
danger
to employees.
In
a
recent piece
in
the Times
of
India
(3
February
1991),
Sunil Sethidetails the
funny
goings-on
in
war-ravaged Iraq,
Entitled
'India's real
heroes
in
the
Gulf';
an
excerpt
follows:
T
he
company that proved to
be
most short-sighted was, in fact,one of
the
oldest
and
most prestigious operating
in the
Gulf:
the
Oberoi group. Since
January
13,
when the
Oberoi staffvacated
the
Babylon hotel
in
Baghdad to proceed northwards to
the
city of Mosul (where they
run
the
Trident
and
Nineveh hotels), there
had been
no communication with
the
aO-odd Indians employed by
the
chain.
The
group is
headed
by
the
Babylon
general
manager,Mr Ajai Kapur, and his wife, Kiran, who, like good soldiers, havesteadfastly refused to abdicate
their
responsibility towards
the
staffof managers, cooks, waiters
and
housekeepers by leaving without theothers.As it happens, Mr Kapur is
the
grandson of
the
hotel chain's ownerM S Oberoi,
and
was
serving
as
the
number
two
man
(executivemanager) of
the
Baghdad Babylon. Late last
yearwhen
he
found thathis boss,
the
general manger, suddenly disappeared to Cairo neverto return,
he
took over
management
of
the
hotels and waited fororders from home to negotiate suspension of
the
contract.came. Indeed
there
is
every
indication to
suggesllhat he
was urgedto stay
on
with his staff.
Whenat
last permission did come,
it
was a
case
of too little, too late -
there
were hardly any
officials left inBaghdad to negotiate with.All's fair
in
war, it is true,
but
the
questions
such
a
story
raises
seem
morally inde1ensible:
if
a hotel
chain
or
any
other
company standsto lose money, is
it
at
the
cost of expecting
their
employees to payso
heavy
a price? Prosperous five-star companies
with
an
international Image may now claim
that
the
contingency
arose accidentally. But did
it
really? Was it just a
series
of miscalculations
or
a plain case of irresponsibility?
15
Tourism
and
Development
in
India 
Suhita
Chopra.
New
Delhi;
Ashish
Publishing
HOllse,
1991;
266;
Rs.200/-.
A
review hy
M.S.
T
here can
be
few
global issues that are currently receiving
as
muchattention
as
is
that
of
'tourism', especially "Third
World"
tourism.
It
is
therefore not surprising
to
see a
slow
yet steady stream
of
books emerging
on
the subject. Moreover, tourism
is
not a topic which
is
of
interest
to
planners. Although planning does
h a v ( ~ 
contributionsto the debate on Third World tourism also involves those who lookat the problem from
an
ecological, political, cultural and developmentalperspective. Not only academics but also policy . makers, travel andtourism industry and politicians may be expected
to
have somethina tosay on theThe book under review here illustratesrelated issues, providing a reasonably representative sample
of
the booksthat have been written on the subject in the last
few
years, as well,
as
the
, . I ; " ~ ~ ~ ; t , , 
of aooroach. Of course, writing in an area which
is
yet
to
berise
to
oroblems. Facina such problems,ten
rh;>"t",
...
"
Pradesh has exquisitely
l::l3V-WjO
AD).
The commercialstarted in 1960s when a series of planningthe government. This has brought in severalsocio-economic-rult.ural
in
the region. This study attempts
to
the changes that have emerged since then. It concludes that likeany other developmental strategy the distributive benefits wereperipheral; simultaneously, it has caused untold suffering
to
the poorerhouseholds.Beginning with a brief discussion
on
the phenomenon of tourism, theauthor presents various lacunae in the existing literature and rationalises
the
need for further research. Four full chapters marshal, analyse anddebate the data collected from various perspectives viz., economicimpact, physical impact, cultural impact and the characteristics of thevisitors t.hemselves. Thus, there
is
a sense
of
debate and argument,
of
asubject in development, and a wider range of conclusions and themesthan one would normally perceive. This
is
the more exciting invitationextended
by
the book. The invitation proves, unfortunately,
to
beshort-lived.
The
book
was
originally written
as
a doctoral dissertation
by
the author.However, the author has failed
to
differentiate between an academicexercise and a publication
for
a wider readership.
She
appears
to
have justreproduced the thesis without alteration.
For
example, the introductoryparagraphs written for each chapter are superfluous and redundant.Moreover, there are excessive statistical presentation which could havebeen condensed. Complicating further
is
the language; its' repetitive andmonotonous style, which reads like a government notification at times.
For
such macro mistakes one tend
to
blame the author (along with herdissertation supervisor!).
Dr
Chopra provides a lengthy discourse
011
the lacunae of the existingliterature on "tourism and development",
her
conclusions nowhere tendto
fill
the gaps identified. Worse still, some of her conclusions arrived afterstatistical exercises are general. Though she attempts to delineatediscussions in each of the chapters, the demarcations prove to beartificial. The descriptions create an
of
timelessness and asense
of
inevitability. The lives
of
people difIerent backgroundsappear boringly similar and the mere act
it
thus heightensvery soon a sense
of
failure and exhaustion creeps
in
to
reader's
world,
and the temptation to close the book just to escape the exoerience ofdrudgery becomes very strong. Absencea temptation.
For
those with an interest in "tourism and development" this book
may
useful in the introductory chapters. However, anyone with morea passing knowledge of recent (and not so recent) debates on"tourism and development" will
find
the volume disappointing.
(The reviewer is a researcher with the
Asianinsiiillte of
Technology, Bangkok).
Steep
Fall
F
ive
star
hotel<;in
Bombay
are offering large
discounts,some
by
as
muchas.50
per cent
in
a
bid
to
woo
more
clients due
to
the
crisis
caused
by
a
sharp
fall in
tourists
arrivals.
Tour
operators
claim that the
situation
in
New Delhi
is
similar
with
five
star
hotels
offering
discounts
of
as much
as
40per
cent.
The crisishas
been
caused
by
a drop
in
tourist
traffic
which
is
pegged
atan
alarming
30
per cellt.
with hotel
industry
officials
reveal
that
most of
thegroups
were
planning expansion schemes
will Dlace
them
"on
till
the
situation
clears
up.
Tour
operators
feel
that
the
fall
in
tourist
traffic
during
the peak
period,
October
to March, has
three
main
reasons: the
Gulf
crisis and
its
fallout,the recession
in
the
US
and the
widespread
riots
in
India
in
the
wake
of
the
Mandai reportand
the
Ayodhya
crisis.
that
the
Gulf
crisis
has
made
Europe,
and
wary of travel.
to this
is
the
of
the
current
turmoil.
Television
in
many
partsIndia
and recently
in
Hyderabad tourists
opt
for
safer havens
nearerhome.
To
add
to
the
woes
of
the tourism
the
tourists
from
the
USSR
who
nmrn"lh,
number around
30,000not
exoected
as
the
severe
cash
the
country
will
abroad.
This
star hotels
in
n-.rt;r"l"r
TIMES
OF
INDIA,
28
December,
1990
: : ~ r r r - ' 
~
~ ~
..
f c ~
__
~
..
...
:',
I ~ ~ ~ ; ~ .
' ~ J I . ~ !
 
TOURISM:
A
New
Cannibalism
A
review
by
Vi
nay
lal
Cannibal
Tours.
A film
by
Dennis O'Rourke. Photography: Dennis ORourke.Colour.
85
mins.
1987.
H
owever slim the share
of
the Third World in the World tourist trade,certain package tours
to
the Third World have become oversubscribed, the proliferation of backpapers more pronounced,and the novelty
of
what were once remote or largely unknowndestinations has worn out. The white man, in his quest for exotic spots,untouched by consumer culture
of
the modern West and of the modernizing elites
of
the Third World, has had to travel far and wide
to
discoveran unspoilt beach, an unknown trail, or an unconquered peak.
It
is
virginforest he seeks, so that he can probe its depths, and thereby leave upon
it
the ineradicable impress
of
his, vastly superior civilization.
It
is
againstthis background that we must view Dennis O'Rourke's finely craftedsensitive
film
on German tourists
to
Papua New Guinea, one
of
the
least"explored" areas of
the
world, home.to the most luxuriant growth
of
vegetation, and inhabited by tribal people still set in their 'primitive'
ways.
The backdrop
to
Cannibal Tours
must also be viewed in the context ofrecent developments in such fields of study as anthropology, literarycriticism, history,
and
philosophy.
It
is questionable whether a
film
like
Cannibal Tours
would have been possible withouC for example, theof studies in recent years on how the self constitntes its Other, or withoutthe self-questioning by some anthropologists
of
the prerogative they hadassumed to interpret the cultures of the non-modern world.Dennis O'Rourke's camera follows the European tourists as they travelalong the Sepik River, stopping every now and
then
to pick up mementosor
to
hobnob with the natives, who are just so
much-
in European eyes-scenery, indeed only a mere unusual kind of vegetation. Marx in
Lhe
mid-nineteenth century had described India as a land
of
countless villagesfrom time irnmernoriaCvegetating
in
Lhe
teeth
of
time, andNew Guinea's inhabitants in the late twenLieLh-cenLury seemjust that. Aboard the tourist yacht two men and a woman
are
engaqedconversation: they all agree that "Primitive ways"are
"so
different'"ours" and not only
do
the natives live "close to nature", which
is
admirable and even chic, but "in a
way
Lhey
don't really live" -they couldbe part
of
the environment. "The experts assure
us",
commenLs
one
of
themen, that the natives are satisfied, "happy and well-fed", without athought for the morrow,
To
this trio
0
'Rour ke returns a
few
times: aboarda boat that
by
its very movement suggests a contrast
to
theHon-Western world, they
are
the representatives
of
'educated' majority in the West which
is
somewhat guilty about theexcesses
of
Western imperialism, an ardent advocate of pluralism, and yetassured
of
the West's unique civilizing mission,
In
another conversationbetween the two European IIlen (the woman a rather silent spectator, onlyslightly less
a
part
of
the scenery
of
the vegetation), one
of
them says withconviction that "we must try
to
help them advance in the worldbringing to them some values and convictions". The Occidental world
is
bv how much needs to be done, and even more"onerous burden placed upon it of orientina the nonmodern world to an awareness of 'civilization',
But
why must the native, be taught "to behave differently"? Modernityis Whatever the extent of one's confinement within
a
traditional world order, one
is
pushed in
to
seeing, experiencing, andinterpreting the world in ways
of
which one's ancestors had little or noconception.
As
the old man who keeps charge
of
the 'spirit house' admits,they
now
live "between
two lives". "We
exist in a different world", he says,and unlike their fathers, they
do
not kill, steal women, and fight, butrather they follow the "rules of the church and
the
government".
ThIS
emergmg modernity ot the [\ew Guinean
is,
however,
::;11.111­
deep, The West ardently believes that the non-Western world can onlyaspire to modernity, but never whollv achieve
it:
this is
one
tunnel at
the
end
of
which there
is
no light
for
14
be taught to behave differently
is
that at
hearthe
remains a cannibal. Inthe
old
days they would cut off the head, remove the skin, and eat the rest."The Germans came", continues the old man laconically, "but white menwere
no
different;
we
fought them
too."
Despite being white, the Germanswere edible. Aboard the boat,the trio speculates
on the
reasons forcannibalism.
It
is
to
be understood as a cultural practice, a mode
of
survival, or symbOlically? The and
fear,
is that
if
the native
f
practicing cannibalism past, what
is
to prevent himresuscitating his traditions? Appropriately,
Cannibal Tours
beginscannibalism and head-hunting. The camera tracks
an
exceedingly well-travelled and jovial German, who consumes countrieswith astonishing avidity. Papua
New
Guinea
is,
for this German, a consummate act of consumption, the most choice dish in a varied cuisine. He
is
shown the spot where cannihalism took place; not unexpectedly, he wantsa Dhotograph. The camera
is
ubiquitous; it intrudes everywhere, createsspace, and sets its own time,
We
might speak here
of
camera time:
the time that
is
set aside for
Dosed
nictures
of
exotic natives, cute children,distinguished
old
man whoruns 'the spirit house' admits that they know little
of
the
tourists exceptthat they are from another counlry.
"We
sit here confused", he adds,
"w
hile they take photographs", The hand that holds the camera does morethan just take a photograph: inadvertently but inevitably
it
gives birth
if'
a distorted culture.
As
the old man almost whimsically remarks,
"Om
children buy postcards
of
their own village!
My
child sent me one,' Whatallows a certain people to travel while others remain sedentary? The oldman has
few
doubts: must be wealthy people that can travel;their ancestors must have made money and now they can travel." Thetourists have money
but
spend it grudgingly: foreverabout the 'second price', their niggardliness
is
a reflection only ofmore structural kinds of inequity. A woman selling her wares makes thisquite plain:
"We
village people have
no
money; only you white peoplehave money,
You
people have all the mone;r--not us backward people."Her militancy is a welcome contrast
to
the pathetic, and vet understandable, effort of two to
earn
money byof Jesus,
How
far money can be determinatiVEthe civilized and the cannibals
is
s U Q c q e ~ ; t e d 
the
old man, for whose wisdom and good humour
we
acquire muchrespect,
is
reduced to wondering, apropos his peoples' inability
to
travel:
"Do
we
still live like our forefathers or not?
Are
we
civilized or noH"However, the camera creates not only the natives, the Objects
of
itsdiscourse, but it creates
the
subjects
too.
0 'Rourke's camera moves overthe myriad other cameras of the tourists:
we
see the tourists becomingadvertisements for themselves and for the nroducts without which theirsurvival in
the
unknownleave home without it": the reference here is not
to
the American Expresscard, but to the infernal lotions which thethemselves. The indigenous women put
on
tourist paint their faces for themselves.
But
is
that
so
vastly different? Thecamera creates and shapes its self-monitoring and predictable subjects,Where the indigenous people devoured others, the white man devourshimself
as
well. The tourists comes
to
see, but
to
see, where
the
gaze
is
is to
devour. What the tourist only does not see
is
thathe devours himself
too.
I
have spoken
of
Cannibal Tours
as aO'Rourke's use of
the
soundtrack
is
_understanding
of
the complex forms of expression that cinemamakes possible. From time to time a flashback takes
us
to the time whenthe people
of
Papua New Guinea were under German rule;
we
hear then
of
ho".
good it
was
under the Germans, and suddenly the music
of
Mozart
fills
the air. The music
of
Mozart,
was
preeminently the music
of
colonialtimes: life for the rulers was something of a symphony, far removed
from
the cacophony of native sounds, both human and natural. And when the
C d U H ~ l d
lHoves
dlullg
\ ~
Ith
the
speedbOat,
or
when
it
initiates it's own
time
(the time for photographs), Mozart's music reappears. The West has lostits own natural sounds, but will the music
of
Mozart substitute for thosesounds?
3
Maha
Blunders
at
Mahabodhi
by
Pranava
K.
Chaudhary
T
he
Bodh-Gaya
temple
has
certainly
lost
much
of
its
splendour and
is 
seeing
bad
days.
The
temple's management committee
has
archae
logical
Iv
devalued
this world
famous
temple
by
paving with
marble the
and
the basement
of the pillars;
it
has
been corroded
over
,
but no
preservation effolts
have
been
made;
graffiti
mars
the
of
its
walls;
the side
of
the
temple
facing
the
Mahabodhi tree
has
beendiscoloured
by
black
soot, due
to
the devotees burning incense and candlesunder
its
walls.
Suggestions
by
the
Dalai
Lama's
entourage that devotees bebanned
from
lighting
candles
in
the temple premises
and
that
alternatively,rovf'redlamps be
uSf'd,
seem
tohave fallen
on
deaf
f'iUS.
The former
director general
of
the Archaeological
SurVf'Y
of India
(AS!),
Ms
Sebala
Mitra,
during
her
visit
last year
to
this third
century temple where the
l3uddha
attained
nirvana
also protested against
making
any
alteration
to
thewithout consulting a technical expert.
She
brought
this
to
the notice
of
the district magistrate
of
Gaya
who
is
also
the president
of
the
management
committee.
The
thendistrictmagistrate
got
the
work
stopped
andwrote
a letter
to
the
commissioner
of
the
Gaya
division who
is
the
chairman'
')f
the
temple
advisory board.
It
was
then
that a
Nepali
and
a
Tibetan
made
J
representation
to
the commissioner! who then
allowed the
continuation
of
the marble oavement
work. Many
antique
images
in
the temple
have
now
been
of
India
(ASI),
sometime
back!
had
expressed
its
it
in
the
list
of
protected monuments,
government
did
not agree
to
the
oroDosal
and
thecontinued
to
be managed
by
a
local
committee.
Bungling
in
the
sale
of
tickets
for
the Mahabodhi
temple, smuggling
of
idols
and
peepal
leaves
have
assumed
an
alarming proportion.
And
add
to
this
corruption. A
large
number
of
tickets
and
counterfoils, without
any
serial
numbers
are
available
withthis
correspondent.
Senior
district
officials
alsoconcede that the
illegal
business cannot
thrive
without the knowledge
of
the
office-bearers
of
the
Bodh-Gaya
temple management committee, whose
ex
officio
chairman incidentallv
is
the district magistrate
of Gava.
It
is
the
committf'eMahabodhi temple.
Apart
from
this,
there
is
theft
from
donation
boxes.
Foreign
tourists
make
donations
in
their currency; when the
boxes are
opened
every
two
the
Indian
currency
is
allegedly deposited
in
the account
of
the temple
management
committee, while
the
foreign
currency,
after
being
exchanged
in
the
market,
is
misappropriated.
A
senior
official
in
the
management committee
told this
correspondent
that
a couple
of
members
of the
management
comm ittee
are
involved.
"1
cannot initiate
any
step
against
them
for
obvious reasons:'
He
further
said
that
on
a
number
of
occasions!Buddhist
visitors offered
ornaments
to
tht'
idols
in
the
temple,
but
these valuables cannot be traced.
Bodh-Gaya has
also
become the hunting
ground
for
international
smllP"P"lprs
of
all
hues. Smuggled
goods
are
openly
sold
in
thf' market
near the
But
the
most
lucrative
business
is
that
of
smuggling
idols
and
peepalleaves.
Buddhist visitors
from
abroad
pay
exorbitant amounts -often.thousands
of
rupees
for
even
a
smallidol of
the
Buddha
or
the
leaves.
Some
of
these
idols are known
to have
been stolen
from
the
Mahabodhiwhile
the
leaves
smuggled
are not
always
of
the
famous
Mahabodhia branch
of
the Mahabodhi
tree
was
cut, and
the
officials
said
that
this
could
not
have
been done without
the
assent
of
the
management committee.
Several
social, cultural
and
educational institutions
like
the Chhalra
Yuva
Sangharsha
Vahini,
Mahila Sangharsha
Bihar
Puravid
Parishad
have
been demanding
the
nationalisation
of
the Mahabodhi
temple.
An
activist
in
Gaya
said,
"It
is
surprising
of
India
(ASIl
has
not
taken
over
the temple, whereas
it
is
looking after
less
historical
sites
in
the country:'
Meanwhile,
the number
offoreignto
l:Iodh-LJaya
has
come down conslderabiy
of
idte
becauseincidents
of
cheating
of
tourists.
SUNDAY REVIEWITIMES OF
INDIA,
23
September,
1990
Goans'
S t ~ \ 1 1 e 
a ~ a i n s t 
R a v a ~ e s
of
Luxury Tourism
by
Caroline Colla!;so
F
rom
the
6th-8th
December
1990,
about
75
delegates
from
22
countries,
met
in
the
ambient
atmosphere
of
the
Ramada
Renaissance hotel
in
Goa,
for
the
39th
session
of
the
Executive
Council
of
the
World
Tourism
Jra;)nicClti,,'l
(WTOL
Their
purpose
as
stated
by
the Secretary General ofWTO
E
Savignac
sounded altruistic:
to
discuss
how
the
"WTO
with
it's
experience
in
the
past,
could help
developi
ng
countries
in
develoDing
Tourism
activities:'
Ironically,
however,
the
WTO
meet
was
being
held
in
a place where
luxurytourism
has
been
growing at
a
frenzied pace
in
recCflt
years
and at
a
time
whenvarious
sections
of
people
in
Goa,
were
voicing strong
protests against the
effects
of
this
luxury
tourism
bf'ing
acutely
felt
in
Goa
already.The
WTO,
with
its
headquarters
in
Spain, has
been
mainly
responsible
for
the
for
maximum luxury
tourism
in
thestate
of Goa.
It
has
recentlycarried
out
a
survey
on
Goa's
tourist
c a r ~ y i n g 
potential
and
recommended
an
increase
in
tourist
arrivals
from
the
present
1.2
million to
2.5
million, with foreign
tourist
arrivals
effectively limited
to 16,000 daily. With
the population
of
Goa
at
1.2
million
-
this means
tourist
arrivals
will
be more than
twice the population
of
Goa!
Based
on the
WTO
report, our Government
is
justifying the
building
of
n
umf'rous luxury
hotels.
In
the past
two years
alone, the building
of
35
luxury
resorts have
been
given
clearance,
which
include
big
multinational
hotel
chains
like
C!.ub
Med, Lufthansa, HyattRegency,
Holiday
Inn
and Raddisson
besides
Ramada
Renaissance and
Kempinski,
all making
a bee-line
for
a prime spot
on
Goa's
75
km
beachline.
Both
the hotels which housed the
WTO
delegates
(Le.
the
RamadaRenais
sance
and
the
Leela
Beach,
a
Kempinskiresort), were
built among protests
for
seriouslyviolating environmental guidelines.
Both
these hotels
were
taken
to
Court
for
these