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ANLetter Volume 5 Issue 3-Sep 1997-EQUATIONS

ANLetter Volume 5 Issue 3-Sep 1997-EQUATIONS

Ratings: (0)|Views: 715|Likes:
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities
Alternative Network Letter and ANLetter is EQUATIONS’ newsletter, which was produced until the year 2000. The central aim of the newsletter is to increase awareness on the impacts of tourism, especially on local communities at tourism destinations, and the necessity to make tourism development non-exploitative, equitable and sustainable. The articles, contributions both by EQUATIONS staff team as well as relevant articles commissioned or featured provide a basis for action and change at both policy and implementation stage.

Publisher: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS)
Contact: info@equitabletourism.org, +91.80.25457607
Visit: www.equitabletourism.org,

Keywords: ANLetter, EQUATIONS Newsletter, Tourism, Tourism Impacts, India, Third World, Non-Exploitative, Equitable, Sustainable, Tourism Policy, Tourism Development, Local Communities

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Volume
5
Issue
3
September
1997
For
Private
Circulation Only
The
Need
of
the
Hour:
Involvement
n
my
preoiousEditorial,
I
hail
asked
you
to add
your
uoices
to
the debate
on the role
oftourism
in
our country's
deaelopmentstraiegy
.
In
rcsponse,
wereceiveil
your
comffientson
the
way tourism
is
impinging
on liaesof peoples.
A
glance throughthis
issue
of
the ANLetterwould
gioe youan
idea
of
the
myriad
of
issues
that
hatte
been
thrown-up.In
a recent
paper
titled
Eco
Tourism andSocialDevelopment,
EQUATIONS
discusses
the
new
Draft
TourismPolicy, which
I
referred
to,
in
the
preaious
Editorial.
The
Draft
Tourism Policy
L997 states
that
"
in
the
context
of economic
liberalisation
andglobatisationbeing
pursued by
the
country,
the deaelopment
policies
ofno sectorcan
remain static"
.
The
policy
further
states
that
;'tht
e*rrgrnce
of
tourism
as
an
important
instrument
for
sustainable
human
dettelopment
including
potterty
alleuiation,employmeit
geneiation,
enoironmental
regeneration
and
adaancementof women
anil
other
disadaantagedSroups
in
the
country"
requires
supportto
realise
these
goals.
India,stourism
resourceshaae
always
been
consiileredimmense,
in
a
tourism
audit,
"the
geogtaphical
features
are
iliaerse,
colourfulanil
varied.
The
coastline
ffirs
opportunities
for
deaeloping
the best
beaches
in
the
world.
There are a
wealth
ofeco'
systems
including
bio-sphcreresernes,mangroaes,
coral
reefs,
ileserts,mountains
and
forests
as
well
as
an equally wide
range
of
flora
and
fauna".
The
Policy
further
states
that"internationaltouristsoisitinginteriors
ofthe
country
for
reasons of
purity
of the
environment
and
nature
cin'tribute
to
thedeuelopment
of
these areas
particularly
bnckwardregions"
.
Thus,
tourism
"
Shouldalso
becomea reason
for
betterpreseraatilonand
protection
of
our natural
resources,
enaironmentand
ecology"
'The
policy
recognises
that
sustained
growth
of
tourism
can
giae
rise to
conflicts.
To ensure
that
the
growth
of tauristn
takes place
along
desired
lines, certain
guidelines
haae
been
frametl:
7.
To
remove
the
constraint
of
the
information
gap'
2.
To create
a
touristproductthat
is
desirable
and
supportedby
an integrated
infrastructure.
3.
To
inaolae
all
agencies,
pubtic,priaate
anil
goaernment,
in
tourism
ileaelopment.
4.
To create
synergy
between
departmentsand
agencies
that
have
to
ileliaer
the
composite
tourist
product.
S.
To
use
both
thecircuitanil
scheme
approach
so
that
people's
participation
throughpanchayats,local
bodies,
NGOs,
and
youthorganisations
will
create
a
greater
awarcness
of
tourism
(TheCentralGoaernmentcan thus concentrate
on
larger
inaestment
orienteilprojects.l
6.
To create
direct
access
for
ilestinations
off
the beaten
track.
7.
To
diversifu
the
product
with
new
options
tike
beach
tourism,
forests,wildlife,landscapes
and adaenturetourism,
farmanil
health
tourism.
8.
To
ensure
that
theileoelopment
does
not
exceeil
sustainable
leaels.
9.
To
deoelopthe
seae,n
North-eastern
states,
the
Himalayan
region and
lslands
for
tourism.
I0.To
maiitain
a
balancebetween
the
negative
andpositiae
impacts
of tourism
through
planning
restrictions and
througheducation
of
the
people
for
conseraationand ileuelopment.
?/t*
*t
,rt"Lrr"*to
oe,fndre/Ou*a.lale
d4"
o(
t/*
o*alen:al
h,
t&io
ttzqolnffietu.
?kaoa
cQzdtt
ce,
,;ffr"f"t"t"1q
a*d
azad'ao
a,
eftV
al
rb
oep"dzizZ
oaale'tat
/ot
oon
*fuucafau.
?io
uleata
e*frnM
ei
the
a.aiecho
6wecL.u.e
oj
ti.e
a,utl.oaa,
a.od
erct
.oecu4au&dA?
o/
td.e
pa'6ho6'e'ta.
 
MANILA
DECLARATIONON
THE
SCCIAL
IMPACTCF
TCURISM
We,
the
representatives ofgovernments
and
private groups from
77
countries
and
territories,
gathered
for
the
World Tourism Leaders'
Meeting
on
the
Social
Impact ofTourism,under the
auspices
of
the World TourismOrganization
(WTO)and the
Government
of the Republic of the
Philippines,
*
HAVING
DISCUSSED the social
impact
of
tourism
and considered
how
to
maximize their positive
aspects
and
minimize their
negative
effects,
*
BELIEVING
that tourism
will
continue to
generate
substantialeconomic and socialproblems
attributed
to
or
associated
with
it,
*
BEING DETERMINED
to
remove
the
social
abuses
and exploitationarising
from,
associated
with
or
occasioned
bytourism
and
its
related
activities,
HEREBY
COMMIT
OURSELVESTO:
1.
Support
greater
involvement
ofcommunities
in
the
planning, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation
of
processes
of tourism
policies,programs and projects
within
the context
of national
objectives and
priorities,
and
for
this purposeintroduce
community
awareness
campaigns to
inform
peopleof
the
benefitsto
be
gained
from
tourism
development;
2.
Improvepeople'sstandard
of
living
through tourism by
providing
economic and social
opportunities
for
widerparticipation
and, whereverpossibleand
acceptable,
dispersal of
tourism activities
and destinationsto
outlying
areas
to
increase
rural
incomes;
3.
Ensure
that tourism
development
planning
the
legacy,
heritage and
integrity
of tourism
destinations
worldwide
and
respect
the
social
and
cultural
norms
of
society,
particularly
among
the
indigenouscommunities
and to
this
end,
control
the
rate
of
growth
of the
tourism
sector
where
it
may
jeopardizelocal
communities
and social values;
4.
Cooperate
with
and encourage the business
community
engaged
in
tourism
and the
travel
trade to
create
the
right
image and
develop appropriate marketing
tools
for
the
destination countries,
andtoundertake
education,
information
and communication
services
to
sensitize
visitors to
the
culture
and
behavioral
expectations ofhost
communities;
5.
Recognize
theroleofhuman
resources
development
in tourism
andestablishlong-term programsthatsupport
greater
employment
of the local labor force
in tourism
and
provide appropriate
measures
as
well
as
opportunitiesfor
a
greater and more
positive participation
of
women
and
youth;
6.
Enhance
and
strengthen
international
coordination
and monitoring
systems
through liaison
and
networking
amonggovernments,
private
sectorand concerned parties
with
a
view
topromoting
the
positive
aspects
and
eradicating
the negative impacts of
tourism;
7.
Further mobilizelocal and internationalsupport
to
prevent and control tourism-related
abuse and
exploitationof
people,
particularly
women
and
children
andother disadvantagedgroups;
8.
Encourage
governments topromulgate
and enforce legal regimes,
both
in
the domestic and
multilateral
.
arenas,
in
order
to
eliminateundesirable social
consequences
of
tourism through,
among
others,agreements
that deprive
malefactorsof any
safe
haven anywhere;
9.
Take
into
accountthe
importance
of
tourism
in
the context of
Agenda
21,
for
tourism
is
a
major
source
ofdevelopment but
like
other
sectors,
it
uses resources
and
generates
wastes and
in
the
processcreates
notonly
social and
culturalbut
also
environmental
costs
and benefits, of
which
the
effectson
biodiversity
and
fragile
eco-systems
like
coral
reefs,
archaeological
sites,
mountains,
coastal areas
and
wetlands
constifute
a
particular
concernand
pose
the
imperative
ofhaving
the
world
celebrate
and,more
importantly,
observe
the tenets of
eco-tourism;
and
10.
Work towards
the
formulation
and eventual
adoption
of
a
Global Code of Ethics
for
Tourism.
ADOPTED
in
Manila,
Phitippines
on 22
May
1997.
39
 
unquestionable.
The
World
Travel and Tourism Council,
for
example,exists
to
'eliminate
barriers to
growth
of
the
industry'.
Thisignores the
reality that
peopleand nature
have
lived
in
harmony
for
centuries,
based
on
principles
of
nurturing
and
compassion.
These
fundamentirl
ethics have
been
subsumed,ever
since
the
industrial
era began,
by
a
relationship
between
man
and nature rooted
in
the
rhetoric
of consumption,
resource
management and
profit.
It
ignores the fact that the
futureof
humanityand
the
earth
are
intimately
bound up:
one
cannot
survive
without
the other.
Although
the
tourism
industry
wears
an
eco-friendly
face,
and
pays
lip-serviceto
environmental
concerns
and goodpractice,
it
has
onthe
contrary served
the
cause
of
environmental
destruction,
particularly in
the
developing
world.
In
Hawaii, traditional
burial
grounds have
been
razed to make
way
for
newresorts. In Bali, devout
Hindus
are
horrified
thattheir
templesare
overshadowed
by
monstrous,
ugly
marinas
and
condominium-style hotels.In
Goa,farmers and
fisherfolk
have been
forced
off their
iands, forced to
seek
new
livelihoods,which
they
are
ill
equipped
to
handle.
In
CostaRica
and Belize, coral
reefs
have
been
blasted to
allow
for
carefree,
unfettered
watersports.In
Phuket,
Thailand,
theyacht club
has been
constructed
over
a
public
road,
effectivelydenying
local people
access
to
their
homes
beyond.
The
world
over,
golf
courses
-all
the
rage
today
-
take
land
away
from
local
communities,
consume enormous amounts
of
scarce
freshwater,
leaving
in
their
wake hazardous
chemical
effluents.It
is
estimated
that
the
water
needed
to
water
a
singlenew
golf
course can
supply
a
village
of
5,000.
The
bottom line
here
is
that tourism
brings
with
it
a
form
ofurbanisation,
in
conflict
with
nature
and the human habitat.
It
is
not
justdestination
areas
(orhost communities)
which
are
affected
by
the
untrammeled growth
ofthe
industry.
Concerns
about
the
destruction
of the ozone
layer,
for
example,cannot
be
separated
from
the inexorable demand
for
long-haulaircraftwhich
pollute
theskies
in
ways
which
are
not
even
beginning
to
be
understood.
Environment
is
not
just
about
trees
and animals,
it
is
about
the
livability
ofthe
human
habitat.
We
need
look
no
further
than
London's
Westend
in
the summer
months
to
see
the
truth.
It
all boils
down
to
a
question of
numbers.
Good practice
is
not
good
enough.
There mustbe,
as
the
Club of
Rome
said,
limits
to
growth.
Regulate,
rather
than
throw wide
the floodgates.Thatisthe kev to the
future.
PauI
Gonsalves,
the
founder
Coordinator
of
EQUATIONS
is
presently
with
the Ecumenical
Coalition
on
Third
World
Tourism.
This
article
was
writtenforPeople
&
thePlanet,
special
issueon
SustainableTourism,Vol.
5/4,
7997,
London.
The
Political
Economy
of
SeIf-RuIe
(The
following
is
the
second
part
of
the
article
The
Political
Economy
ofSelf-Rule
by
Anita
Cheria and
Edwin.
This
note
Iooks
at
the conceptual
and
ideological
framework
inoolaed
in
theadiaasi
struggle,
based
on
its
impact
at
the
grassroots,
and
a:illtry
to
answef
the
question
as
to
why
the
adioasi
oppose
projects
that
will
rehabilitate
them
outside
the
forest,
and
gain
them
access
to
'modern
Iife'.
It
argues
that
the
globalization
process
seeks
to
make
other
holarchies waste absorbers,
and
it
is
this
unequal anddehumanising
exchange
that
the
adiaasiare
resisting.As
a
corollary,
it
will
also
explain
why
few
people
are brought
aboae
the
poaerty
line
by
globalization.
The
final
part
wiII
appear
in
the
next
issue
of
the
ANLetter.)
The Slow
Strangulation
Process
How
does
sequential
expropriation work
in
practice?
Initially,
thepeople
might
see
some
increased
benefits
-
more
wages,
welfare
measures
to
'ease
their transition
to
the
mainstream',
aidor
charityfor
instance
-
but
theend
result
will
be
the
same:
they
will
end
up
a waste
absorbers,
because
the dominant
system
cannot
relate
to
them
as
equal,
since
it
will
defeat thevery purpose of
extraction
ofthe
best
and
expropriation.
Let
us take
the questionof
land.
The
plan
calls
for
the
eventual
eviction
of
the adiaasi
from
theirhomelands.According
to
the
Eco-developmentplan,
'in
the
long term excluding
these
areas
from
the
PAs.
.
.
woulil
not
be
compatible
with
management
.of the
area
for
conseraation
of
biodioersity.'
The
adiaasi
homelands
are
not
taken
overat
one
go.
This is
in
tune
with
the
slow
strangulation
process
that
we found
in
our
study.rAs
Additional
Inspector
General
(Wildlife),
Dey,
admitted
at
a
meeting
on
joint
protected
area
management
at
IIPA
in
September
t994,'eoen
if
the
sanctuaries and
national
parks
were
declared,
the process
of section 19-25of the WLPA was
not
undergone
extinguishing
or
admitting
the
rights
etc
of local
people.'The
World
Bank
plan
also
admits
that
the
resolution
of
rightswould
be
so
time
consuming,
and
enforcing
of
the
law
would
be
so socially
and
politically
difficult,
that
state
goaernments
haoe
tried not
to
do
so.
Call
it
lethargy,
lack
of
will
or
what you
will,
officialdom
prefers instead
to'proaide
incentiaes
for
peopleto
moae
uoluntarily
to
thebuffer
or
peripheral
areas
of the PAs.'Butthe
process
bywhich
these
incentives
are
provided
is
interesting.
To
makethe
life
of
the
adfuasi
unviable
within
the
area
encroached
by
the
forest department,
the
forest
department
resorts
to
processes
of
slow
strangulation.
This is
the
process
of
whittling
that
we
have
found
in
oursurvey.
The declaration
of
the
areaas
a
National Park
is
preceded
and
succeeded
by
several silentmethods
of
making
thelives
of
the
adipasi
unviable.
The
method
usedhas
fourdistinct
stages.
1.
Inthis
stage theadiaasi are
notallowed
to
grow
anyof
their
fruit
trees
and
what
they haveis takenover
by
the forest
department
and then
replanted
with
teak.
Vast
areas
of
the
3

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