Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Sacrifice-Mauss

Sacrifice-Mauss

Ratings: (0)|Views: 525 |Likes:
Published by debopriyag

More info:

Published by: debopriyag on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/01/2013

pdf

text

original

 
\
SACRIFICE:ITSNATUREANDFUNCTION
By
HenryHubertandMarcel
MaussMauss,afterhisworkonsacrificeconcludedthatsacrificialritualbelongedtothemuchevolvedformsofreligiouslife,nottotheprimitivebase.Itwasconnectedwiththefarmoregeneralsystemofconsecrations.TheessentialpointisthatfollowingRobertsonSmithandDurkheim,heshowedclearlythefunctioningoftheideaofthesacred.InhisworkMausstriestodefinethenatureandsocialfunctionsofsacrifice.ItwasRoberstonSmiththefirstonetoattemptarationalexplanationofsacrifice.Hewasinspiredbythediscoveryoftotemism.Hesawinthepracticeoftotemicculttherootoriginofsacrifice.Maussdoesnotintendtotracethehistoryandgenesisandsacrificehere.
1.-
DefinitionandUnityoftheSacrificialSystemSacrificeisareligiousactwhichthroughtheconsecratlonofavictlrn,modifiestheconditionsofthemoralpersonwhoaccomplishesitandofcertainobjectswithwhichheisconcerned.Allsacrificesimplyconsecration>anobjectpassesfromtheprofanetothesacredworld.theconsecrationtouchesbeyondtheconsecratedobject;devoteeadquiresareligiouscharacterthatdidnothavebeforeorgetsridofsins.Thesacrifier:thesubjectwhoreceivesthebenefitsofthesacrificeorundergoesitseffects.Iscanbeanindivualoracollectivity(family,clan).Istheonewhobearstheexpensesoftheceremony.Objectsofsacrifice:thosekindsofthingsforwhosesakethesacrificetakesplace(house,field).Thesacrificeaffectsboththesacrifierandtheobjectofsacrifice.Itservesasintermediarybetweenmenandgodsincetheyarenotindirectcontact.Victim:animalorvegetable/fruitofferedinsacrificewhichisdestroyed,releasinglotsofenergy,spirit.MauscalledthosesacrificesinwhichthepersonaJityofthesacrifierisdirectlyaffectedbythesacrifice,personalsacrifices,andthoseinwhichobjectsrealoridealreceivedirectlythesacrificialaction,objectivesacrifices.Thisapproachassumesthegenericunityof.sacrifices.
...
,,-.".-
:~.
Sacrificesareclassifiedintoregularandoccasional.Occasionalsacrificesarea)sacramentalsacrifices,·thosewhichaccompanythesolemnmomentsoflife,example,birth,marriage,funerals,etc.b)votivesacrificeswhichoccasionalnatureismoremarkedandc)curativeandexpiatorysacrifices.Periodicalorregularsacrificesarelinkedtocertainmomentsoflife,independentofmen'swill:dailysacrifice,fullandnewmoon.Thereisabasicschemeofsacrificewhichisflexibleandvariesaccordingtothecircumstancesandtheendspursued.TheHebrewritualprovidesnolessstrikingexamplesofthecomplexityofritesandidenticalnatureofthecomponentelements.Leviticusreducesallsacrificetofourclassicforms:
olah
(dispatchofofferingtothedivinity),
hattat
(expiation),
she/amin
(communion),
minha
(momentofpresentationofthevistim).Inrealitythosefourtypesarenolongerrealtypesofsacrificebutkindofcomponentelements
1
 
inwhichoneoftheorgansofsacrificeisparticularlydeveloped.Thushereiscontinuitybetweentheformsofsacrifice,sincetheymixandminglewitheachother.Theyarebothtwodiverseandyettosimilarforittobepossibletodividethemintospecializedcategories.Thereareallthesameinessence,itiswhichconstitutestheyunity.
r
2.-TheSchemeofSacrificeSacrificeisareligiousactthatcanonlybecarriedoutinareligiousatmosphereandbymeansofreligiousagents:"Beforetheceremony,neitheragents,place,instrumentsorvictimhaveareligiouscharacter.Therefore,itisnecessarytointroduceallofthemintothesacredworld.Theschematicelementsofsacrificeare:a)Introductiontothesacredworld:agentsandelementsareprofane,sotheirconditionmustbechangesb)Thesacrifier:heorshemustbecomedivineoratleast,sacred,pure.MausstookthecaseofDiksha,namelythepreparationofthesacrifierforthesacrificeofsoma.TheseritesarepeculiarnotonlyforHindusbuttheSemiticworld,GreeceandRometoo.Heassertsthatacertaindegreeofrelationshipwiththegodisdemandedfirstofallfromthosewhowishtobeadmittedtothesacrifice;Allthesepurifications,lustrations.Ablutions,fastingandconsecrationspreparetheprofaneparticipantsforthesacredactbyeliminatingfromtheirbodytheimperfectionofthesecularnaturecuttingthemofffromthecommonlife,introducinghimintothesacredworldofthegods.c)Thesacrificer:onecannotapproachsacredthingsdirectly,andintermediaryisrequired,forexamplethepriest.Thepriestisthelinkbetweenthesacredandtheprofane.Heisfamiliarwiththesacredworldandcanapproachitmoreclosely.Healreadyhasareligiouscharactersolessornonpreparationisrequired.Sometimetheprofaneperson(sacrifier)isevenformallyexcludedfromthesanctuaryandthesacrifice.Inthiscasethepriestbecomes'ononehand,themandatoryofthesacrifier,whoseconditionshesharesandsinshebears.d)Placeandinstruments:theplaceofsacrificemustbesacred;outsideaholyplaceimmolationisonlymurder.Thus,iftheceremonydoesnottakeplaceinatemple,preliminaryconsecrationisnecessary.InHindutradition,fire(Agni)isasignofconsecration:whatisdivineofAgni
IS
transmittedtotheplaceofsacrifice.Alsotheinstrumentsareconsecrated,purified.Theentryofthevictimmarksthebeginningofthedrama.Aperfectcontinuityoftheritualisrequiredinordertocontroltheforcesatwork.Thereligiousactmustbeaccompaniedbyareligiousframofmindoftheagents;atotalconfidenceontheresultofthesacrifice.e)Thevictim:thevictimisthefocusoftheplaceofsacrifice.Itcanhaveadivinecharacterorfixedritesmayberequiredtoconferuponitthereligiouscondition.Seriesofoperationsareorientedtowardspurificationandconsecration.Alsothevictimmustbepersuadedtoallowtobesacrificedpeacefullyandnottotakevengeance.TheliberationofthespiritofthevictimistheaimoftheceremonyMagicalandreligioussympathybetweenvictimandsacrifierisprovidedbyphysicalcontact,likelayingonofhands.Thus,theyareunited,merged,fusedtogether.Thesacrifierpasseson
2
 
somethingofhisownpersonalitytothevictim.Thenonwards,thefuturefateofthevictim,itsimminentdeath,hasareverseeffectuponthesacrifier.Theculminatingpointiswhenthespiritresidinginthevictim,untilthenattachedtoitsbody,isreleased,makingtheconsecrationdefinitiveandirrevocable.Thisisthepassageofthevictimfromitsprofaneworldintothesacred.Theactofdestructionofthevictimistheessentialactionofsacrifice,wherethevictimchangesitsnature.Now,thevictimsoritsremains(sprinklingblood,applicationoftheskin,eatingapiece)willpassontothesacrifierthenewqualitiesithasacquiredbyactionofthesacrifice.Thegodsmustalsoreceivetheirshareofthevictimwhichwasofferedto
...
them.Thevictimistheintermediary,throughwhomcommunicationbetweenmanandgodisestablished,passingreligiouspowers;itestablishesacontinuitybetweenthesacredandtheprofaneandunityamongtheparticipants.f)Theexit:thisphaseisgoingbacktotheprofane.Theceremonymustbedissolvedslowly,withoutdisturbance.Theerrorsoftheceremonymustbewipedup,sotheywon'tthreatenthenormallife.Alltheremainsoftheofferingaredestroyed,theutensilsarecleaned.Thus,thereligiousatmosphereisabandoned,descendingfromtheworldofgodstotheworldofmen.Thereligiousconditionofbothvictimandsacrifiergothroughacurverisingprogressivelywhileenteringintothesacredworld,attainingitsculminationatthemomentofsacrificeofthevictim,anddescendingwhilegoingbacktotheprofaneworld.Thus,thereisacontinuousmovementfromentrytoexit.Ofcourse,amongtheelementsandagentsoftheceremony,isthevictimthatreaches[hehighestpointofsacredness.;3.-TheSchemesVariesAccordingtotheGeneralFunctionsoftheSacrificeTheschemedescribedabovechangesaccordingtotheendsoughtthefunctionitistofulfill;thepartsarearrangedindifferentorderandproportions.Samemayassumegreaterimportancewhileothersmaybelacking.Theschemevariesaccordingtothereligiousstateofthesacrifier.a)Ordinationorinitiationsacrifices:thesacrifierisnotinvestedwithanysacredcharacterbeforetheceremony.Thegoalofthesacrificeistoimpartthischaractertohim.Thus,theceremoniesofintroductiontothesacredworldarethe.mostsalient.Thesacrifiejmustretainhissacredcharacterwhenhereturnstotheprofane;theexitpracticesalmostdisappear.b)Sacralizationsacrifices:themostessentialpartiswhenthespiritofthevictimhasdeparture,whenthecommunionoffoodispracticed.c)Desacralizationsacrifices:thesacredcharacterispassedfromthesacrifiertothevictim.Forexample,whenthe
nozir
(Jewtradition),whoisapurebeing,finisheshisperiodsofconsecrationtoYahweh(keepingawayfromallstain),heperformsadesacralizationsacrifice,freeinghimselffromtheconsecration.d)Curativeandexpiatorysacrifices:performedtogetridofsickness,impurity,deathorsin,whichareconsideridenticalfromthereligiousviewpoint;allcausedbyfaultsinobservingthereligiousrules.Thesacredcharacter(sin,iinpurity)istransmittedfromthesacrifiertothevictim,andinthisway,hegetsridofit.Itisbeforeandnotaftertheimmolationthatcontactbetweenthebothtakesplace.Here,theritesofexitareemphasized.Theseareonlyavarietyof
3

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
lvvictoria liked this
Steve Rose liked this
Miguel Dinis liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->