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Table Of Contents

1. Preliminary remarks
2. Description of the clinker burning process
2.1 Reactions of the kiln feed
2.2 Burning process
3. Execution of kiln performance tests
3.1 Mode of operation of the kiln system
3.2 Duration of the performance test
3.3 Measuring methods
3.3.1 Solid substances
3.3.1.1 Sampling
3.3.1.2 Analysis
3.3.1.3 Mass flows
3.3.2 Gases
3.3.2.1 Sampling
3.3.2.2 Analysis
3.3.2.3 Volume flows
3.3.3 Liquids
3.3.3.1 Heating oil
3.3.3.2 Water
3.3.4 Temperatures
3.3.5 Pressures
3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds
3.3.7 Electricity consumption
3.3.8 Ambient conditions
3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses
4. Evaluation of kiln performance tests
4.1 Balancing of the entire system
4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
4.1.2 Gas volume flows
4.1.2.1 Dry gas
4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow
4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor
4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood
4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air
4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air
4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas
4.1.2.2 Water vapor
4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air
4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel
4.1.2.2.4 Injection water
4.1.2.3 Moist gas
4.1.2.3.1 Air
4.1.3 Liquid mass flows
4.1.4 Energy flows
4.1.4.1 Energy input
4.1.4.1.1 Fuel
4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed
4.1.4.1.3 Air
4.1.4.1.4 Injection water
4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance
4.1.4.2 Energy output
4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed
4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker
4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust
4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust
4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations
4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation
4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses
4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses
4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion
4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection
4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat
4.1.4.3 Energy balance
4.2 Balancing of the partial systems
4.2.1 Clinker cooler
4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows
4.2.1.3 Energy flows
4.2.1.3.1 Energy input
4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker
4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air
4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water
4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance
4.2.1.3.2 Energy output
4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust
4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection
4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat
4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation
4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance
4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities
4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone
4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area
4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency
4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency
4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)
4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining
4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)
4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages
5. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems
6.4 Chemical composition
6.5 Phase composition
6.6 Microscopic examination
6.7 Cement testing
7. Evaluation of the emissions
8. Formula signs and indices
9. Literature references
9.1 General literature references
9.2 Technical literature references
10.1.2.1 Dry gas
10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood
10.1.2.2 Water vapor
10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air
10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples)
10.1.3 Liquid mass flows
10.1.4 Energy flows
10.1.4.1 Energy input
10.1.4.1.4 Injection water
10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance
10.1.4.2 Energy output
10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed
10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker
10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust
10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust
10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation
10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection:
10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat
10.1.4.3 Energy balance
10.2 Balancing of the partial systems
10.2.1 Clinker cooler
10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows
10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance
10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities
10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone
10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area
10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency
10.2.2 Calcinator
10.2.3 Preheater
10.3 Estimation of error
10.4 Tables
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kiln_vt10_english

kiln_vt10_english

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Published by Radu Florin Rus

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Published by: Radu Florin Rus on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/18/2013

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