Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Art of Checking Pipe Stress Computer Programs

The Art of Checking Pipe Stress Computer Programs

Ratings: (0)|Views: 690|Likes:
Published by sateesh chand

More info:

Published by: sateesh chand on Mar 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/11/2013

pdf

text

original

 
~TheAmericanSocietyof
®
MechanicalEngineers
RaprintBdFrom
PVP-Vol.169DesignandAnalysisof
PipingandComponents
Editors:O.N.Truong,E.C.Goodling,JR.
J.J.
Balaschak.and
G.E.O.
Wldera
BookNo.H00484-1989
THEARTOFCHECKINGPIPESTRESSCOMPUTERPROGRAMS
Liang-ChuanPeng
PengEngineering
Houston,Texas
ABSTHACT
Withthecomputergettingmoreandmoresoph-isticated,thechanceofgettingabuginaprogramoramisapplication
In
ananalysisalsobecomesmoreandmorelike
J.y.
Ana.lys+sneedsome
l'
ulesofthumbtoquicklyspotproblemareasandtomakeaquickcheck
if
necessary.Thispaperoutlinessomeofthegeneralrulesusedinchecking
boundar-y
con-ditions,unbalancedforces,andirregularities.
It
alsousesspecificexamplestodemonstratethecheckingofsomeelementaryruncttons.Specialdis-cussionsaregivenonadvancedfeatUressuchassupportfriction,thermalbowing,andexpansionhellowelements.
INTRODUCTION
Withthenewrequirementsgivenonthedesignofamodernplantpiping,theonlypracticaltoolforthedesignanalysisisthecomputer.Thecomputerprogramdesignedforpipestressanalysisgetsmoreandmoresophisticatedeveryday.Someprogramshavegonethroughseveralgenerationsofdevelop-
rnerrt
eTnployingcompletelydifferentbackgroundofpcrsonnel.Thenewgenerationnormallywillnot"touchthegoodworkdonebythcirpredecessors.Instead,theymakelayersofshellsaroundtheexis-tingwork.Thecompletedprogrambecomesverydisorganized.Therefore,itissafetosay
that
amodernpipestresscomputerprogramishoundtohavesomeinconsistencies.PipestressanalystsarenormallytootimidinchallengingaweIlesta.bli.shedcornputerprogram.However,
if
werecognill.ethattoerriscomputerprogram,wemaybeabletomoreobjectivelyensurethequalityofouranalysis.
It
isimportanttoreal-izethatever-ythinghasitssocallednorm.Inotherwords,ifsomethinglooksunrealisticthenitprobablyisunreal.Therefore,itisimportanttobeabletolookat
the
outputandpointouttheirregularitiesthatmightexist.Thatistheart.FromtimetotimewehaveseenSomeexperiencedengineerswhoareabletojudgewhetherasystemissatisfactoryjustbylookingatthemodel.Thecomputeranalysisisjustacomf
iz-m
ing
check.However',theyaretheexe
epttonal.
ratherthanthenormal.Theinconsistentresultsinananalysiscomeseitherfromthebugintheprogramorfromthemis-applicationoftheprogram.Nowadays,peopleliketoboastthatyoudon'tevenneedtoreadthemanualtoUSetheircomputerprogram.Thesocalleduserfriendlyisprobablywhattheyintendedtosay,butsomehowthetmpr-eseiontheygiveisnot.Youtypeinsomedata,thenyougetsome
r-e
sults,
It
soundseasy,butisscary.Toenaureagoodanalysistheanalysthastohaveatleastaclearpictureofwhat
the
programfunctionsare.HeorsheshouldalsobeabletospottheinconsistencieswhentheyOCCur.
PROGRAMVERIFICATION
Aprogramissystematicallyverifiedbeforebeingrcleasedforproduction.Theverificationinvo-lvesalmosteverystepoftheprogram!soperationandfunction.Thcresultsoftheverificationaredo-cumentedintheverificationreports.ThisisthefunctionoftheprogramdeveloperandshouldnotbeaburdentotheUSers.Verificationbytheuserisocca.sional
ly
requiredbythemhouseQAprocedure,ortosimplysatisfythecuriosityofthe
USCI'
ortheboss.Toananalyst,tobeabletopersonallyverifyacoupleofanalyses
w
illdefinite
1y
increasehisorherconfidenceintheprogram.Themostcommonapproachoftheverifi-cationistocheckagainstknownresults,Thebook
by
KelloggCompany
[ll
containsquiteafewhandcalculationresultswhichcanbecheckedagainstthe
77
 
expansionstresscalculation.
A
moreformalcalcu-lationintendedtobeabenchmarkwaspublishedbyASME
[2]
in
1972.
Unfortunately,thisbenchmarkproblemcontainsBornemisprints,whichhaveneverbeencorrected,andalsotheunusualnon-circularcrosssectionelements.Becauseofthesedifficulties,theproblemhascreatedahugefrustrationinthepipingindustry.Everywhere,engineersaretrying
to
makeacomparison
in
vain.Laterin
1980
U.S.NRCpublishedasetofrepresentativepipingbench-markproblems[3].ThissetofproblemswastakenfromrealsystemsIatdoutinnuclearpowerplants.
It
ismainlyusedtochecktheearthquakeanalysisuaingtheresponsespectra
rne+hod,
Thebenchmarkproblemscheckonlythegeneralbehaviorsoftheprogram.Thegeneralbehaviorofagivenprogramdiffersverylittlefromtheoriginalblackboxonwhichmostoftheprogramsarebased.Therefore,verylittledeviationshallbeexpectedfromthesetests.Themostimportantitemsto
be
concernedwitharetheonesparticulartoindivjdualprograms.Theseitemsneed
to
becheckedverydiscretely.
DEVIATION
Incomparingthetestresultswithpublishedorbenchmarkresults,therelativedeviationisused.Thetermerrorisnotusedbecausethedifferencemightbecaused
by
theerrorofthepublishedorsocalledknownresults.EVenthesocalledexactsolu-tionmighthavesomeseeminglyinSignificanttermsignored.However,
if
thedeviationissmallthenthereisagoodchancethatboththetestingprogramandthebenchmarkareCOrrect.Thisismoresowhenthentestingprogramusesanentirelydifferentsolutiontechniquethanthatusedbythebenchmark.
In
evaluatingthedeviation,somecommonSensehastobeappliedtoavoidunnecessaryarguments.Forgivenquantity,R,whoseexactsolutionisshwoninFigure1
(a],
Itacorrespondingresult,R'.fromthetestprogrammay
be
shiftedtoasshowninFigure1(b).Thenbysomemethodsofevaluation,
y
y
Ry"O
R
+_...Io._-_'"..._-x
(a)
(b)
Figure1,StundardDeviation
it
maybeconcludedthatthereisnocomparisonatall.Becausethedeviationisessentiallyinfiniteoncomponent
Hy.
Butweallknowthattherealdiffer-encebetweenthetwosolutionsisverysmall.Thiscanbeeasilyprovedbecause
if
werotatetheaxesby45degrees,thedeviationwillalmostdisappearcompletely.Thepointisthatanumberismeaning-lcss
if
its
quantityisentirelydependentofthe
se
l-ectionofthecoordinateaxes,Therefore,
it
isim-portanttohavethedeviationproperlydefinedasfollows:dev(Ry)"(Ry'-Ry)
I
Ry
dey
(Ry)
Ry'-Ry)/
R
dev(Ry)
i:
Ry'-Ry)
I
Ro(Meaningless)(Local)(Global)WhereRistheresultantquantityatthepointofinterest,andItoisthemaximumresultantquantityintheentiresystemanalyzed.Theglobaldeviationisintroduced,becauseatagivenpointtheresultantquantityitselfmaybeinSignificant.Whether
it
isSignificantornot,thetooltomeasur-eistheglobalcomparison.Theevaluationofthelocaldeviationrequiressomepersonaljudgement,buttheglobaldeviationshouldbelimitedtoabout10percent.BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS
ThefirststepinquickcheckingananalysisistomakesurethattheresultS.matchtileboundaryconditionsofthesystems.Thiscanbedoneeasilywiththehelpofagoodoutputarrangement.Mostcomputerprogramshaveaseparatereportfortheanchorandsupportforcesandmomentsasshown
in
Table
1.
Forthis
par-tic
ularone[4}
t
hefrictionandthepipedisplacementsarealsogiven.Thismakesthecheckingoftheboundaryconditionveryeasy.ByusingreportssuchasTable1,theboundaryconditionscanbecheckeddirectlybylookingatthepipedisplacements.Atananchorpointthepipedisplacementshouldbethesameastheinput
drspf-
acement,andatthelimltstop
Iocatron
thepipedisplacementshall,beequaltoorsmallerthanthegapspecified.However,
it
shouldbenotedthatthesupportdisplacementspecifiedintheinputisforthesupportstructure.Theactualpipedisplacementatthatpointmayormaynot
he
thesameasthesup-portdependingontherigidityofthesupport.
If
thesupportisrlgidthenthepipeandthestructurewillhavetheaamedisplacement.But
if
thesupportisflexiblethenthepipedisplacementandthesuppor-tmovementaredifferentasshowninFigure2.Constant,KSupportForce"_K(Dp-Ds)PipeDisplacement,Dp(output)Displacement,Ds(inpllt)Figure2,SupportandPipeDisplacements
71'1
 
lie1.Anchor
and
supportLoads
IIS/IU12.
PUGENSIEWIS-SIIlHEH!(R[L-4.o»)(IoMSH31.3JPASEII
SAIIPlEI'RIlRl£ll,1989ASMIJSHE
f'1I
P
ClIIIHIIEIIC
E
FRlmDIIFACTORO.~8MALLVEaTlCAlstlPPOIITS
CAUITIl
t
VI
RESULTS
if
HtHIt.U·HIf-
LOAD'THft,
NST,BNS,
FOR,
un,esp,
PRES
Itt
ANClIIlRMill5UPl'll~1FORCES-INCLUDINGFRICTlDN",CHilliONSUfPilIn
IH
f._••_•__._..
sUProarfOIlCEMill"OftENT
,--,,---,,---11--,-,-,--
fRICT
10M...-.
····f!···-
DEFLECHOH...;SUfTDATAFOllm(
)I)•---
~OMNiS
(N)-----
FDRm(N)--
1(
II-~)
HII)
NOTES
TYPEPTFlFYfZHI
~y
HI
rnm
FH
FlITDX
Dr
Dl
YESS5
lOCAL
SPRS20
LSI
NlY
Nl1
LSI
lilY
LSI100
SPI!!i11>5
-4552
289B
RADIAL
2lI9B2m-1951-m-763
-4!iS2-2m-739-195J7&4
"f~IDNTANSIITLTORSIDIICIRCUIIFLDNSTlll
e
o
',0-3.6
.0
o
-61145
o
o
o
o
2.9-6.1-1.0
65
o
eo
oooo
e
3.0-.034.4lNACTIVE
65
1401
o
o
(l
(I(I
3.0
-.034.4
65
70
(I
4047
o
M-.03M
(I
-10154
(I
o
353
131n
(I
e
o
(I(I
.0-.01&.410
e
o
e
2011
.0-.016,4
-7546
o
(I
o
(I
-6.0-.0-1.7
II
(I(I(I(I
G
Q
-6,
Q-.
(I
-1.7IMilCTIYf
o
-173
(I
-47
-6.0
-.0-].7
(I
-1['47
(I
-1.1
j,a
-6.0
(I
o
(I
.1S.8U
vsss12Q7M3
LOr:IIL229~
W!AL
SPRS150
5PRS160
Sl1160
ANCH180
-mil
-2S71
-3087
-5148-7368
-2lI7!-10435748·7369:ross
~£Rl
ON
T
~N6NTL
TORSI!llf
C1R£U~F
UUlGTDt
(I
.02.0
B.O
(I
-]535
(I
o
-3.229.5~,4
oo
o
o
11.4!7.1
.0
oo
11.'17.1
.0
218B
4
-1261
3S01
-9188
(I(I
-2.0
!.5
.0
UUfHlltffHUHHffHIUtHtfHUfffHtftHtfUffJItHtltfftfffftltHfHftffHtfHHtf
UlflftlflllfiflUlflUHIIHtlUltiHU
(I
6011
lifT
FORCES
-i»
-33J7l-6014
ISO
79

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Alex liked this
fkhajeh liked this
fkhajeh liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->