Six Trigonometric Functions of an AcuteAngle:Let A be any acute angle, B any pointon either side of the angle, and ABC the righttriangle formed by drawing a perpendicularfrom B to the other side of the angle. DenoteAC, the side adjacent to the angle A, by b (forbase), BC, the side opposite the angle A, by a(for altitude), and the hypotenuse AB by h.The three sides of the right triangle form sixdifferent ratios, namely,and their reciprocalsSince these ratios depend upon the angle for their values, they are the functions of the angleaccording to the general definition of a function that we discussed at the beginning of our lesson.Each of these functions has received a special name.The six functions just defined are variously known as the trigonometric, circular, or goniometricfunctions: trigonometric, because they form the basis of the science of trigonometry; circular,because of their relations to the arc of a circle; goniometric, because of their use in determiningangles, from gonia, a Greek word meaning angle.The terms sine of angle A, cosine of angle A, etc., are abbreviated to
sin A, cos A, tan A, cosec A , secA , and cot A
. The definitions of the first six trigonometric functions must be thoroughlymemorized. The first three are especially important and should be memorized.The remaining threefunctions may be remembered most readily by the aid of the reciprocal relations, reciprocalrelations,Sin A.Cosec A = 1Cos A.Sec A = 1Tan A.Cot A=1It should be noticed that while a, b, and h are lines, the ratio of any two of them is an abstractnumber; that is, the trigonometric functions are abstract numbers. Also, the expressions
sin A cosA, tan A etc.
, are single symbols which cannot be separated,
has no meaning except as it isassociated with some angle.EXAMPLE: The sides of a right triangle are 3, 4, 5. Find all the trigonometric functions of theangle A opposite the side 4.