Problem Definition, Exploratory Research, and the Research Process
rate. Upon reﬂection, the business objective focused on identifying marketing levers thatwould increase brand penetrationand thus growth. Accordingly, the research objectivestransformed into understanding barriers to current brand purchase and identifying bridgesthat would motivate category users to buy the brand.Study results showed that the brand chieﬂy suffered from awareness problems. Bothbrand and category users liked the product, but didn’t use it as often as others in the cate-gory because they simply forgot about the brand. Remindersin the form of advertising,incentives, and new productsbecame the levers that could improve brand penetrationand growth. Conducting an equity study among heavy users clearly wouldn’t have caughtthis.
The process for deﬁning the problem is shown inExhibit 2.1. Note that the ultimate goal is to developclear, concise, and meaningful marketing researchobjectives. Researching such objectives will yield pre-cise decision-making information for managers.
Recognize the Problem orOpportunity
The marketing research process begins with therecognition of a marketing problem or opportunity.As changes occur in the ﬁrm’s external environment,marketing managers are faced with the questions“Should we change the existing marketing mix?”and, if so, “How?” Marketing research may be usedto evaluate products and services, promotion, distri-bution, and pricing alternatives. In addition, it may be used to ﬁnd and evaluate new opportunities, in aprocess called
.Let’s look at an example of opportunity identi-ﬁcation. In 2005, online travel spending surpassedofﬂine travel spending for the ﬁrst time. Duringthat year, $66 billion of leisure and unmanagedbusiness trips were bought through the Internet.
Yet, the landscape for consumers is confusingbecause there are so many sites out there. For savvy marketers, this information represents an opportu-nity. Marketing research can hone in and clarify where the best opportunities lie.Marketing research led to the creation of siteslike Cheapﬂights, FareCompare, Kayak, Mobis-simo, Ziso, SideStep, and Yahoo’s Farechase.These so-called aggregators do what consumershave attempted with their own manual comparisonshopping: open several browsers on a computerscreen to check multiple travel sites. Aggregators si-multaneously scour the Web sites of airlines, ho-tels, car rental companies, and consolidators, andpresent data along with the special deals.
Determine whether the question really can be answeredState the research objectivesUnderstand the decision-making environment(the industry, company, products, and target market)Determine whether the information already existsTranslate the management probleminto a marketing research problemRecognize the problem or opportunityFind out why the information is being soughtUse the symptoms to help clarify the problem