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Goodstein, Recursive Number Theory

Goodstein, Recursive Number Theory

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02/19/2013

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STUDIESINLOGIC
AND
THEFOUNDATIONSOFMATHEMATICS
L.E.
J.
BR0UWER
E.W.BETHA.HEYTING
1957
NORTH.HOLLANDPUBLISHINGCOMPANYAMSTERDAM
RECURSIVENUMBERTHEORY
.f'.
!...:
't"
\,:i~-;"~I.~
ADEVELOPMENTOFRECURSIVEARITHMETIC~INALOGIC·FREEEQUATIONCALCULUS
BY
R.L.GOODSTEIN
Professor
of
MathematicsUniversityofLeicester
I
1957
NORTH·HOLLANDPUBLISHINGCOMPANYAMSTERDAM
 
trtz-=
Copyright19S1
I'
"
~.
~
I
Nopart
or
thisbookmaybereproducedinanyfonn,byprint.photoprint,microfilmoranyothermeanswithoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisher
I'IU!\TEDINTHENETHERLANDS
IIItUKKEUUROLLANDN.V,.AMSTEUDAM
PREFACE
Thediscoveryofthereflexiveparadox,thattheclassof
all
classeswhicharenotmembersofthemselvesisaself-contra-dictoryconcept,gaverisetothreenewdevelopmentsinmathe-matics.ThefirstofthesewasRussell'stheoryoftypes,onepartofwhichsegregatedobjectsintotypes(classesofobjectsofonetypeformingtheobjectsofthenexthighertype)andprohibitedtheformationofclassesofmixedtype.Thistheoryledtocon:siderablecomplicationsintheconstructionofarithmeticsinceitexcludednotonlyparadoxesbutalsoconstructionsfundamentaltothetheoryofrealnumbers,likethatoftheleastupperboundofaboundedclassofnumbers,andtherehabilitationoftheseconstructionsnecessitatedtheintroductionofanaxiomwhichassociatedwithapropositionalfunction(propositionalformwithavariable),whoseargumentrangedoverobjectsofagiventype,
a.
propositionalfunctionwiththesametruthvalueswhoseargumentrangedoverobjectsofthefirsttype.Inmorerecentformulationsofsettheoryalternativestotypetheory(andthereducibilityaxiom)havebeenproposed;thesealternativetreatmentsdependuponsomerestrictionoftherightofmembership,fortified
(in
thecaseofQuine'ssystem)bywhatmaybecalledapotentialtyping,accordingtowhichtheobjectsymbolsineveryvalidformulainatype-freesymbolismmustadmitanassignmentofnumbers
in
suchawaythateachobjectreceivesanumberwhichisonelessthanthenumberoftheclasstowhichitbelongs.TheseconddevelopmentwhichwasinitiatedbythediscoveryofthereflexiveparadoxwasBrouwer's'intuitionistic'logicandarithmetic,themostnovelfeatureofwhichwasthedenialofthe
tertium-non-datur,
theprincipleoflogicwhichassertsthateverypropositioniseithertrue,or
false,
nothirdpossibilitypresentingitself.Therejectionofthe
tertium-non-dalur
eliminatesthereflexiveparadoxsincetheparadoxrestsontheassumptionthateveryclass
 
VID
PREFACEPREFACE
eitheris,orisnot,amemberofitself.butitalsoinvalidatesthefamiliar
interpretations
ofaconsiderablepartofarithmetic(althoughGodelhasshownthatintuitionistioarithmeticincludesthewholeofclassicalurithmetic.in
the-sense
thattoanyformulaprovablebyclassicallogic('OITI'SPOllllsaformulaprovablebyintuitionistiologic).Thethirdsvstemwhichwasdevelopedtoescapethereflexiveparadox
was
~kol(,IIl's
recursive
arithmetic.Skolemobservedthathecouldavoidtheparadoxwithoutrecoursetotherestrictionsof
t)ll('
theoryandwithouttherejectionofanyruleofclassicallogicifhedidnottake
existence
asoneoftheprimitivenotionsoflogic,Inacalculuswhichexpressesuniversalityonlybymeansoffreevariablesthishastheeffectof
prCl:elltiny
theapplicationofthe
tertiumlIOn
datur
inthosecaseswhereitmightleadtoparadox,sinceitrulesoutthenegationofuniversalpropositions.ThesacrificeofexistenceasaprimitivenotiondeprivedSkolemof
till'
clnssicalmethodoffunctiondefinitionandinitsplaceheintroduced
Iff/initioll
by
recursion,
Afunction/(r~)issaid
to
bedefinedbyrecursionif.insteadofbeingdefinedexplicitly,(thatis.asanabbreviationforsomeotherexpression),onlythevalueof
/(0)
illgiven.and
1(1t:
1)isexpressedasafunctionof
I(n).
In
otherwordsarecursivedefinitiondocsnotdefine
/(n)
itself,butprovidesaprocesswherebythevaluesof/(0),/(1).
1(2),
/(3)andsoon.aredeterminedoneaftertheother.
In
thefollowingaccountofrecursivearithmeticweshowthatlogicandarithmeticmaybeconstructedsimultaneouslyinafreevariableequationcalculus
in
whichtheonlystatementsareequationsoftheform
a
=
b,
where
"a"
and
"b"
standforfunctionsigns.Bymeansofthisequationcalculusthe
ab
initio
constructionoflogicandarithmetic
maybepresentedin
lull
rigouranddetail
atafarmoreelementarylevelthanhashithertobeenpossible,anditishopedthatthefirsthalfofthebookwillprove
to
besuitableforthemathematicalspecialistinhisfirstyearattheUniversity.
In
thispartagreatdealofthesmallerdetailhasbeenseparatedfromthetextandpresentedinexampleform(withcompletesolutionsattheendofthebook)bothtomakethetextlightertoreadandtohelpthereadertoacquireanewtechniqueineasystages.
I
desire
to
expressmywarmestthankstoProfessor
HEYTIXG
forthevery
kindinterest
he
has
takeninthepreparationofthisbook,fromthefirstmanuscriptdrafttothefinishedtypescript;toMr.
JOHNHOOLEY
forpreparingthcindexandforgeneroushelp
in
readingtheproofs;andtotheCompositorsoftheNorth-HollandPublishingCompanyfor
theexcellence
oftheirwork.
Leicester,
England
R.L.GOODSTEIN

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