IMPURITY RESULTING IN GOT RID OF BY COMMENTS
S)Water smells like rotteneggs: Tastes bad, and iscorrosive to most metals.Aeration, Filtration,and Chlorination.Found mainly in groundwater, andpolluted streams.Carbon Dioxide (CO
)Corrosive, forms carbonicacid in condensate.Deaeration,neutralization withalkalis.Filming, neutralizing amines used toprevent condensate line corrosion.Oxygen(O
)Corrosion and pitting of boiler tubes.Deaeration & chemicaltreatment with(Sodium Sulphite orHydrazine)Pitting of boiler tubes, and turbineblades, failure of steam lines, and fittingsetc.
Sediment & TurbiditySludge and scalecarryover.Clarification andfiltration.Tolerance of approx. 5ppm max. for mostapplications, 10ppm for potable water.Organic MatterCarryover, foaming,deposits can clog piping,and cause corrosion.Clarification;filtration, andchemical treatmentFound mostly in surface waters, causedby rotting vegetation, and farm run offs.Organics break down to form organicacids. Results in low of boiler feed-waterpH, which then attacks boiler tubes.Includes diatoms, molds, bacterial slimes,iron/manganese bacteria. Suspendedparticles collect on the surface of thewater in the boiler and render difficult theliberation of steam bubbles rising to thatsurface.. Foaming can also be attributedto waters containing carbonates insolution in which a light flocculentprecipitate will be formed on the surfaceof the water. It is usually traced to anexcess of sodium carbonate used intreatment for some other difficulty whereanimal or vegetable oil finds its way intothe boiler.
Dissolved Colloidal Solids
Oil & GreaseFoaming, deposits inboilerCoagulation & filtrationEnters boiler with condensate
, Calcium(Ca),andMagnesium (Mg)Scale deposits in boiler,inhibits heat transfer, andthermal efficiency. Insevere cases can lead toboiler tube burn thru, andfailure.Softening, plusinternal treatment inboiler.Forms are bicarbonates, sulphates,chlorides, and nitrates, in that order.Some calcium salts are reversibly soluble.Magnesium reacts with carbonates toform compounds of low solubility.Sodium,alkalinity,NaOH, NaHCO
Foaming, carbonates formcarbonic acid in steam,causes condensate returnline, and steam trapcorrosion, can causeembrittlement.Deaeration of make-up water andcondensate return.Ion exchange;deionization, acidtreatment of make-upwater.Sodium salts are found in most waters.They are very soluble, and cannot beremoved by chemical precipitation.Sulphates (SO
)Hard scale if calcium ispresentDeionizationTolerance limits are about 100-300ppmas CaCO
Chlorides, (Cl)Priming, i.e. unevendelivery of steam from theboiler (belching),carryover of water insteam lowering steamefficiency, can deposit assalts on superheaters andturbine blades. Foaming if present in large amounts.DeionizationPriming, or the passage of steam from aboiler in "belches", is caused by theconcentration sodium carbonate, sodiumsulphate, or sodium chloride in solution.Sodium sulphate is found in many watersin the USA, and in waters where calciumor magnesium is precipitated with sodaash.Iron (Fe) andManganese (Mn)Deposits in boiler, in largeamounts can inhibit heattransfer.Aeration, filtration,ion exchange.Most common form is ferrousbicarbonate.Silica (Si)
ard scale in boilers andcooling systems: turbineDeionization; limesoda process, hot-lime-zeoliteSilica combines with many elements toproduce silicates. Silicates form verytenacious deposits in boiler tubing. Verydifficult to remove, often only byflourodic acids. Most critical