The major properties of heavy fuel oil are as follows;
Density is the relationship between mass and volume at a stated temperature, and theSI unit is Kg/m
. This gives value of 800- 1010 kg/m
for marine heavy fuel oil.The density of HFO is limited to 991kg/m
to facilitate efficient centrifuging. (Centrifugesuse centrifugal force to separate water from HFO, so the bigger the difference in densitythe greater removal of water ). However the density of HFO can be been increased to1010kg/m
if clarifiers are used, as water seal can be maintained during clarification.Any higher density than this will inhibit HFO water removal treatment throughcentrifuging.
Viscosity is a measurement of the resistant of a liquid to shear or flow and is measuredin Centistokes (CST) with a quoted reference temperature. Knowing the viscosity of theheavy fuel oil is required the temperature range required for satisfactory injection at thefuel atomizer, and efficient combustion.
The flash point of the liquid is the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapor is givento produce a flash on application of a flame under specified test conditions.The minimum flash point for marine fuels in the machinery space of merchant ship isgoverned by theIMO;being set at 60
C to minimize fire risk during normal storage andhandling.
The pour point is the lowest temperature at which a marine fuel oil can be handledwithout excessive amounts of wax crystals forming out of solution. At a lower temperature the fuel will gel, thereby preventing flow.
The carbon residue of a fuel is the tendency to form carbon deposits under hightemperature condition in an inert atmosphere, and may be expressed as either Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) or Micro Carbon Residue (MCR). The maximumlimit of carbon residue content in fuel is 22 %.