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0.1 Introduction
The principal curvatures
1.1 Volume of a thickened hypersurface
1.2 The Gauss map and the Weingarten map
1.3 Proof of the volume formula
1.4 Gauss’s theorema egregium
1.4.1 First proof, using inertial coordinates
1.4.2 Second proof. The Brioschi formula
1.5 Problem set - Surfaces of revolution
Rules of calculus
2.1 Superalgebras
2.2 Diﬀerential forms
2.3 The d operator
2.4 Derivations
2.5 Pullback
2.6 Chain rule
2.7 Lie derivative
2.8 Weil’s formula
2.9 Integration
2.10 Stokes theorem
2.15 Restriction to a subgroup
2.16 Frames
2.17 Euclidean frames
2.18. FRAMES ADAPTED TO A SUBMANIFOLD. 47
2.18 Frames adapted to a submanifold
2.19 Curves and surfaces - their structure equa-
2.20 The sphere as an example
2.21 Ribbons
2.22 Developing a ribbon
2.23 Parallel transport along a ribbon
2.24 Surfaces in R3
Levi-Civita Connections
3.1 Deﬁnition of a linear connection on the tan-
3.2 Christoﬀel symbols
3.3 Parallel transport
3.4 Geodesics
3.5 Covariant diﬀerential
3.6 Torsion
3.7 Curvature
3.8 Isometric connections
3.9 Levi-Civita’s theorem
3.10. GEODESICS IN ORTHOGONAL COORDINATES. 67
3.10 Geodesics in orthogonal coordinates
3.11 Curvature identities
3.12 Sectional curvature
3.13 Ricci curvature
3.14 Bi-invariant metrics on a Lie group
3.14.1 The Lie algebra of a Lie group
3.14.2 The general Maurer-Cartan form
3.14.3 Left invariant and bi-invariant metrics
3.14.4 Geodesics are cosets of one parameter subgroups
3.14.5 The Riemann curvature of a bi-invariant metric
3.14.6 Sectional curvatures
3.14.7 The Ricci curvature and the Killing form
3.14.8 Bi-invariant forms from representations
3.14.9 The Weinberg angle
3.15 Frame ﬁelds
3.16 Curvature tensors in a frame ﬁeld
3.17 Frame ﬁelds and curvature forms
3.18 Cartan’s lemma
3.19. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATES ON A SURFACE. 83
3.19 Orthogonal coordinates on a surface
3.20 The curvature of the Schwartzschild metric
3.21. GEODESICS OF THE SCHWARTZSCHILD METRIC. 85
3.21 Geodesics of the Schwartzschild metric
3.21.1 Massive particles
3.21.2 Massless particles
4.3.3 The deﬁnition of ω
4.4 The connection form in a frame ﬁeld as a
4.5 Gauss’ theorems
4.5.1 Equations of structure of Euclidean space
4.5.2 Equations of structure of a surface in R3
4.5.3 Theorema egregium
4.5.4 Holonomy
4.5.5 Gauss-Bonnet
5.1 Submersions, ﬁbrations, and connections
5.2. PRINCIPAL BUNDLES AND INVARIANT CONNECTIONS. 111
5.2 Principal bundles and invariant connections
5.2.1 Principal bundles
5.2.5 Associated vector bundles
5.2.6 Exterior products of vector valued forms
5.3 Covariant diﬀerentials and covariant deriva-
5.3.1 The horizontal projection of forms
5.3.2 The covariant diﬀerential of forms on P
5.3.3 A formula for the covariant diﬀerential of basic forms
5.3.4 The curvature is dω
5.3.5 Bianchi’s identity
5.3.6 The curvature and d2
Gauss’s lemma
6.1 The exponential map
6.2 Normal coordinates
6.3 The Euler ﬁeld E and its image P
6.4 The normal frame ﬁeld
6.5 Gauss’ lemma
6.6 Minimization of arc length
Special relativity
7.1 Two dimensional Lorentz transformations
7.1.2 Hyperbolic angle
7.1.3 Proper time
7.1.4 Time dilatation
7.1.5 Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction
7.1.6 The reverse triangle inequality
7.1.7 Physical signiﬁcance of the Minkowski distance
7.1.8 Energy-momentum
7.1.9 Psychological units
7.1.10 The Galilean limit
7.2 Minkowski space
7.2.1 The Compton eﬀect
7.2.2 Natural Units
7.2.3 Two-particle invariants
7.2.4 Mandlestam variables
7.3 Scattering cross-section and mutual ﬂux
Die Grundlagen der Physik
8.1 Preliminaries
8.1.1 Densities and divergences
8.1.2 Divergence of a vector ﬁeld on a semi-Riemannian manifold
8.1.3 The Lie derivative of of a semi-Riemann metric
8.1.4 The covariant divergence of a symmetric tensor ﬁeld
8.2 Varying the metric and the connection
8.3 The structure of physical laws
8.3.1 The Legendre transformation
8.3.2 The passive equations
8.4 The Hilbert “function”
8.5. SCHRODINGER’S EQUATION AS A PASSIVE EQUATION. 175
8.5 Schrodinger’s equation as a passive equa-
8.6 Harmonic maps
Submersions
9.1 Submersions
9.2. THE FUNDAMENTAL TENSORS OF A SUBMERSION. 181
9.2 The fundamental tensors of a submersion
9.2.1 The tensor T
9.2.2 The tensor A
9.2.3 Covariant derivatives of T and A
9.2.4 The fundamental tensors for a warped product
9.3 Curvature
9.3.1 Curvature for warped products
9.3.2 Sectional curvature
9.4 Reductive homogeneous spaces
9.4.1 Bi-invariant metrics on a Lie group
9.4.5 Dual Grassmannians
9.5 Schwarzschild as a warped product
9.5.1 Surfaces with orthogonal coordinates
9.5.2 The Schwarzschild plane
9.5.3 Covariant derivatives
9.5.4 Schwarzschild curvature
9.5.5 Cartan computation
9.5.6 Petrov type
9.5.7 Kerr-Schild form
9.5.8 Isometries
9.6 Robertson Walker metrics
9.6.1 Cosmogeny and eschatology
10.1 Algebraic properties of the curvature ten-
10.2 Linear and antilinear maps
10.3. COMPLEX CONJUGATION AND REAL FORMS. 221
10.3 Complex conjugation and real forms
10.4 Structures on tensor products
10.5 Spinors and Minkowski space
10.6 Traceless curvatures
10.7 The polynomial algebra
10.8 Petrov types
10.9 Principal null directions
10.10 Kerr-Schild metrics
11.1 Deﬁnition of the star operator
11.3 The star operator on forms
11.4 Electromagnetism
11.4.1 Electrostatics
11.4.2 Magnetoquasistatics
11.4.3 The London equations
11.4.4 The London equations in relativistic form
11.4.5 Maxwell’s equations
11.4.6 Comparing Maxwell and London
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Semi-Riemannian Geometry and General Relativity - S. Sternberg

# Semi-Riemannian Geometry and General Relativity - S. Sternberg

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01/03/2013

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