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AGBC Closing Arguments Canadian Polygamy Reference Case

AGBC Closing Arguments Canadian Polygamy Reference Case

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Published by borninbrooklyn
Attorney General of British Columbia Closing Arguments for the Canadian Reference Case on Polygamy
Attorney General of British Columbia Closing Arguments for the Canadian Reference Case on Polygamy

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Published by: borninbrooklyn on Mar 08, 2011
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05/12/2014

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No.8-097767VANCOUVERREGISTRYINTHESUPREMECOURTOFBRITISHCOLUMBIAINTHEMATTEROF:THE
CONSTITUTIONALQUESTIONACT,
R.S.B.C.1986,c.68ANDINTHEMATTEROF:THE
CANADIANCHARTEROFRIGHTSANDFREEDOMS
ANDINTHEMATTEROF:AREFERENCEBYTHELIEUTENANTGOVERNORINCOUNCILSETOUTINORDERINCOUNCILNO.533DATEDOCTOBER22,2009CONCERNINGTHECONSTITUTIONALITYOFs.293OFTHE
CRIMINALCODEOFCANADA,
RS.C.
1985,c.C·A6CLOSINGSUBMISSIONSOFTHEATTORNEYGENERALOFBRITISHCOLUMBIAATTORNEYGENERALOFBRITISHCOLUMBIA1301-865HornbyStreetVancouver,B.C.V6Z2G3Telephone:(604)660-5476CRAIGE.JONESCounselfortheAttorneyGeneralofBritishColumbiaDEPARTMENTOFJUSTICEBCRegionalOffice900-840HoweStreetVancouver,B.C.V6Z2S9Telephone:(604)666-1543KEITHREIMERCounselfortheAttorneyGeneralofCanadaFARRIS,VAUGHAN,WILLS
&
MURPHYLLPBarristersandSolicitors2500-700WestGeorgiaStreetVancouver,
Be
V7Y1B3Telephone:(604)661-9332
.
.
GEORGEK.MACINTOSH,Q;C.CounselandReferenceAmicus
 
2
Contents
I.INTRODUCTION
4
A.OVERVIEW4B.BACKGROUNDTOTHEREFERENCE6
C.
THEATTORNEYGENERAL'SPOSITIONONTHEREFERENCEQUESTIONS10
II.THEHISTORICALANDSOCIALCONTEXT11
A
THEORIGINSOFTHECRIMINALPOLYGAMYBAN:11B.MORMONPOLYGAMYINCANADA
1886-1890
18C.THEUNCERTAINLEGALSTATUSOFPOLYGAMYIN
188920
D.
FIRSTNATIONSPOLYGYNY
26
E.POLYGAMYINBOUNTIFUL
27
F.MUSLIMPOLYGAMYINCANADA30
III.THEPURPOSEOFSECTION293
32
A
HISTORICALEVIDENCEOFTHEPURPOSEOFSECTION
293:
32B.THELEGALSIGNIFICANCEOFRELIGIOUSORIGIN37C.HASTHEPURPOSEIMPERMISSIBLY"SHIFTED"?39
IV.THEINTERPRETATIONOFSECTION293
42
A.
ApPLYINGTHERULESOFSTATUTORYINTERPRETATION.42B.POLYGAMYVERSUSBIGAMY50C.POLYGAMYVERSUSPOLYANDRY51
V.HARMSOFPOLYGAMY.-56
A.OVERVIEW56B.INCREASEDRISKSINPOLYGAMOUSFAMILlES57
(1)
TheExpertEvidence57(2)EvidenceofthePersonalWitnesses
62
C.SOCIALHARMSCAUSEDBYPOLYGAMY64
(1)Overview
64
(2)TheExperts'ViewsofHarmsAttributabletoPolygamy
66
(3)PolygamyandthePredationofGirls
68
(4)CommodificationandControl
of
Women
78
(5)TraffickinginGirls89(6)"LostBoys':Crime,andAntisocialBehaviour
91
(7)Educationallmpacts
97
D.
POLYGAMYANDTHEPOLYAMORISTS100
E.
HARMSNOTSUBJECTTOCONCLUSIVEPROOF101
(1)AntidemocraticandMacroeconomicEffects
101
(2)HarmtoMoralValues
102
(3)HarmstotheValueofEqualityandtheProtectionofVulnerableGroups
103
VI.SECTION2:RELIGION,EXPRESSIONANDASSOCIATION104
A
SECTION2(A):FREEDOMOFREUGION104B.SECTION2(B):FREEDOMOFExPRESSION108C.SECTION2(0):FREEDOMOFASSOCIATION109
VII.SECTION7:LIBERTYANDSECURITYOFTHEPERSON
111
 
3
A.THEASSERTEDINFRINGEMENTS111B.LIBERTYTOMARRYMORETHANONEPERSON•..........................................................................112
C.
SECURITYOFTHEPERSON......................................................................................................•...113
A.
THEROLEOFHARMINANALYSISOFFUNDAMENTALJUSTICE116B.ARBITRARINESS118
C.
OVERBREADTH120
(1)PolygamyandPo/yamory
1
20(2)The'CriminalizationofVictims'
122
D.
DISPROPORTIONALITY124
VIII.SECTION7:FUNDAMENTALJUSTICE
116
IX.SECTION15(1):EQUALITY
127
A.
RELIGIOUSDISCRJMINATION127B.DISCRIMINATIONONTHEBASISOFMARITALSTATUS133
X.JUSTIFICATIONUNDERSECTION1134
A.OVERVIEW:134B.PRESSINGANDSUBSTANTIALCONCERN135
C.
RATIONALCONNECTION135
(1)TheReasonedApprehensionof
a
CausalLink135(2)Section
293
asa
Deterrent
138
(3)WouldPolygamyIncreaseiftheLawWereStruckDown
?
143
D.
MINIMALIMPAIRMENT150
(1)TheTwoArguments150(2)AlternativeMeans150(3)Overbreadth
155
E.SALUTARYANDDELETERIOUSEFFECTS157
(1)SalutaryEffectsofthePolygamyProhibition157(2)DeleteriousEffects
159
XI.CONCLUSION
163
APPENDIX:THEUSEOFEXTRINSICEVIDENCEOFHISTORY
165

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