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Query Data with Fuzzy Information in Object-Oriented Databases an Approach Interval Values

Query Data with Fuzzy Information in Object-Oriented Databases an Approach Interval Values

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In this paper, we propose methods of handling attributive values of object classes in object oriented database with fuzzy information and uncertainty based on quantitatively semantics based hedge algebraic. In this approach we consider to attributive values (as well as methods) object class is interval values and the interval values are converted into sub interval in [0, 1] respectively. That its the fuzziness of the elements in the hedge algebra is also sub interval in [0,1]. So, we present an algorithm allows the comparison of two sub interval [0,1] helping the requirements of the query data.
In this paper, we propose methods of handling attributive values of object classes in object oriented database with fuzzy information and uncertainty based on quantitatively semantics based hedge algebraic. In this approach we consider to attributive values (as well as methods) object class is interval values and the interval values are converted into sub interval in [0, 1] respectively. That its the fuzziness of the elements in the hedge algebra is also sub interval in [0,1]. So, we present an algorithm allows the comparison of two sub interval [0,1] helping the requirements of the query data.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Query Data With Fuzzy Information In Object-Oriented Databases An Approach Interval Values
Doan Van Thang
Korea-VietNam Friendship Information Technology CollegeDepartment of Information systems, Faculty of Computer ScienceDa Nang City, Viet Nam Countryvanthangdn@gmail.com
 Doan Van Ban
Institute of Information Technology, Academy Science andTechnology of Viet Nam.Ha Noi City, Viet Nam Country
Abstract
 In this paper, we propose methods of handlingattributive values of object classes in object oriented databasewith fuzzy information and uncertainty based on quantitativelysemantics based hedge algebraic. In this approach we consider toattributive values (as well as methods) object class is intervalvalues and the interval values are converted into sub intervalin [0, 1] respectively. That its the fuzziness of the elements in thehedge algebra is also sub interval in [0,1]. So, we present analgorithm allows the comparison of two sub interval [0,1] helpingthe requirements of the query data.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 In recent years, the information about the objects in thereal world are often fuzziness, uncertain, incomplete. So thetraditional object-oriented database model inconsistent inreality. Solving this problem, fuzzy object-oriented databasemodeling has suggested to represent and process the objectsthat the information its can be fuzziness and uncertainty.The attributive value of the object in the fuzzy object-oriented database is complex. It includes: linguistic values,number values, interval values, reference to objects (thisobject may be fuzzy), collections,… Thus, when query data inobject-oriented database with fuzzy and uncertaintytyinformation the most important problems is how to find amethod of handle the fuzzy values and then we build amethods comparising them. There are many approaches onhandling fuzzy values that researchers interests as: graphtheory [4], fuzzy logic and theory of ability [2], probabilitytheory [3], logical basis [1],… Each approach has advantagesand disadvantages.In 2006, Nguyen Cat Ho and al have proposed an hedgealgebraic model. Approached in hedge algebra, linguisticsemantics can be represented by an neighborhood intervalsdefined by the fuzzy measure and linguistic values of attributeit considered as linguistic variable. On this basis, in this paperconsidered domain of fuzzy attribute is hedge algebra andtransformer interval values into subsegment [0, 1], and thenquerying and handling the data of objescts with fuzzyinformation and uncertainty become effective.The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents thebasic concepts relevant to hedge algebraic as the basis for thenext sections; section 3 proposed two SFTVA and SFTVMalgorithms for searching data fuzzy conditions for bothattributes and methods; section 4 presents examples forseraching data with fuzzy information, and finally conclusion.II.
 
H
EDGE
A
LGEBRAS
 Builting on approach to hedge algebra, we present someoverview of basics of hedge algebra and the ability torepresent the semantics based on the structure of hedgealgebra [6].Consider the domain of the linguistic variable Truth:
Dom
(TRUTH) = {
true, false, very true, very false, more-or-lesstrue, more-or-less false, possibly true, possibly false,approximately true, approximately false, little true, little false,very possibly true, very possibly false
.....}, where
true, false
isprimary terms, mordifier terms
very, more-or-less, possibly,approximately true, little
is hedges. Meanwhile linguisticdomain T =
Dom
(TRUTH) can be considered as a linear hedgealgebra
= ( X, C, H,
≤  
)
, where
is a set of primary termconsidered as a generator term. H is a set of hedge consideredas a one-argument operations,
relation on terms (fuzzyconcepts) is a relation order “induced” from natural semantics.Example based on semantics, relation order following are true:
false
≤  
true, more true
≤  
very true nh
 
ng very false
≤  
morefalse, possibly true
≤  
true nh
 
ng false
≤  
possibly false,
... Set Xis generated from C by means of one-argument operations in H.Thus, a term of X represented as
x = h
n
h
n-1
.......h
1
x
,
x
C. Setof terms is generated from the an X term denoted by H(x). If Chas exactly two fuzzy primary term, then one term calledpositive term denoted by c
+
, other term called negative denotedby c
-
and we have c
-
< c
+
. In the above example,
True
ispositive and
False
is negative.Thus, let
X = ( X, G, H,
≤  
)
with
G = { c
− 
, W, c
+
}, H = H 
− 
 
∪ 
+
,
where
+
= {h
1
,..., h
p
} and
-
= {h
-1
, ..., h
-q
}
arelinearly ordered
,
with
h
1
< .. .< h
p
and h
-1
< .. .< h
-q
,
where
 p, q >1
, we have the following definitions related:
Definition 2.1 [6]
. f: X 
→ 
[0,1]
is quantitative semanticfunction of X if 
h,
H
+
or
h,
H
-
,
x, y
X, wehave:
 
)()( )()( )()( )()(
yky yhy xkx xhx
=
 For hedge algebra and quantitative semantic function, wecan define
fuzziness
of fuzzy concept. Given quantitative
http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis
 ISSN 1947-5500
1
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
semantic function f of X, consider any
x
. Fuzziness of xwhen it is measured by the diameter of the set
f(H(x))
 
 [0,1].
Definition 2.2 [6]
: An
fm
: X
[0,1] is said to be a fuzzinessmeasure of terms in X if:(1) fm is called complete, that is
u
X,
=
0,
)()(
ipiq i
ufmuhfm
.(2) if x is precise, that is H(x) = {x} then
fm(x) = 0
. Hence
fm(0)=fm(W)=fm(1)=0
.(3)
x,y
X,
h
H,
)()()()(
yfmhyfmxfmhxfm
=
,
Thisproportion is called the fuzziness measure of the hedge h and denoted by
µ 
(
h
)
.
Definition 2.3 [6]:
Invoke
fm
is fuzziness measure of hedgealgebra X,
: X -> [0, 1].
x
X, denoted by
I(x)
 
[0, 1]and |I(x)| is measure length of I(x).A family J = {I(x):x
X} called the partition of [0, 1] if:(1): {I(c
+
), I(c
-
)} is partition of [0, 1] so that |I(c)| =
fm
(c), where c
{c
+
, c
-
}.(2): If I(x) defined and |I(x)| = fm(x) then {I(hix): I =1...p+q} is defined as a partition of I(x) so that satisfyconditions: |I(h
i
x)| =
fm
(h
i
x) and |I(h
i
x)| is linear ordering.Set {I(h
i
x)} called the partition associated with the termsx. We have
)()()(
1
xfmxxh
qpii
==
+=
 
Definition 2.4 [6]:
Set X
=
{ }
xx
=
:
, consider P
=
{ }
xx
:)(
is a partition of [0, 1]. Its said that u equal vat k level, denoted by u =
v, if and only if 
I(u)
and
I(v)
 together included in fuzzy interval k level. Denote
u, v
X,
uPvu
=
)(:
and
v
)(
.III.
 
F
UZZY OBJECT
-
ORIENTED DATABASE AND DATA SEARCHMETHOD
 Based on fuzzy object-oriented database model given byZongmin Ma[11], fuzzy class C includes a set of attributes andmethods.C = ({a
1
, a
2
, …, a
}, {M
1
, M
2
, …, M
m
})Where a
i
is imprecise attribute (precise), M
j
is method.Attribute
a
i
= <n, t> with
n is name and t is valueattribute. Attribute value can be one of the four followingcases:
 
 
Precise values
: This category of values involvesall the primary values that usually appear in anobject-oriented data model (e.g., numeric classes,string classes, etc.). Domain value in this case wecan easily manipulate with the use of theoperations (
=
,,
) in the conditionalexpression of queries; or we can build the fuzzyconditions fuzzy to implement query data,example “
show all objects employees who is lowincome than the average salary”.
 
 
Imprecise values (or fuzzy)
: The cases withimprecise values (or fuzzy) are complex,linguistic labels [10] are usually used torepresent this kind of values. Different types of imprecise values must be considered on thesemantics of the imprecise value. For example, aplant is named
thyme
, it developer on humusland biet the levels of low or average lighting isuncertainly; or His height is about 2 meters;approximately [18, 35] to represent youngpeople's concepts.
 
Objects
: The attribute value may be a referenceto another objects (complex object). Objects thatit references may be fuzzy.
 
Collections
: The attribute may be conformed bya set of values or even by a set of objects.Imprecision in this kind of attributes appears attwo levels:
o
 
The set may be fuzzy.
o
 
The elements of the set may be fuzzyvalues or fuzzy objects.A method defined in class is as following description:
j
(N, I, R)
 
(u, v, g)
Where:N: name method.I: set of input parameters; {<name, type>}.R: set of attributes that its value is read by themethod.u: set of output parameters include the return valuetype {<name, type>}.v: set of attributes that its value is changed by themethod.g: the set of message given by the method of the form{[o, msg, p]}, o is the place to receive notifications, msg ismessage and p is the set of parameters in the message {<n,t>}.Similar the model of object-oriented database, a fuzzyobject oriented database is data model, in which attribute of data is fuzzy (or clear) and methods operate on the attributesthat are packaged in structures called objects (fuzzy).
A. Convert the attribute value to interval values
In this paper, we only interested in handling of intervalvalues. So, all attribute values are transferred to interval valueand then manipulating easily. The description of transferablemethod follows as:- If attribute value is a then converted into [a, a].- If attribute value is about a then converted into [a-
ε 
,a+
ε 
],
ε 
is the radius with center x.
- If attribute value from a to b then converted into [a, b].
B. Convert the interval values to subsegment [0, 1]
Set
Dom(A
i
)
= [min, max] is domain object attributevalues, where min and max stand for min and max values of Dom(A
i
).
2
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Definition 3.1 [9]:
f: Dom(A
i
)
 
[0, 1] and determined:
)(minmaxmin)(
i
ADomaaa
=
 
C. Algorithm search data approach to interval value
The query language model object-oriented databases areseveral authors research interest and extend the model fuzzyobject-oriented database. The structure of fuzzy OQL queriesare considered as:
select 
<attributes>/<methods>
from
<class>
where
<
fc
>, where <
fc
> are fuzzy conditions orcombination of fuzzy condition that allow using of disjunctionor conjunction operations.Important issues in the fuzzy OQL query is determinetruth value of the <
fc
> and associated truth values. In thispaper, we use approaching to interval values fordeterminating the truth value. Example, we consider queryfollowing “
show all students are possibly young age
”. Toanswer this query, we perform finding the intersection parts of two subsegment [0, 1]:+
First subsegment 
: As we have shown the attribute valuehas 4 cases, we focus on considering the attribute values in thesecond case and special interval value. In the above query,
age
 is attribute of student objects and attribute value areconsidered interval value. We use definition 3.1 to convert thisinterval into the subsegment [0, 1].+
Second subsegment 
: In the above query,
possibly young
 is fuzzy condition and fuzzy condition is considered fuzzinesson complete linear hedge algebra. So, fuzzy condition is alsosubsegment [0, 1] (fuzziness of linear hedge algebra issubsegment [0, 1]).Without loss of generality, we consider on cases multiplefuzzy conditions with notation follow as:-
θ 
 
is AND or OR operation.
 
-
i
fz value
is fuzzy values of the i attribute.
SFTVA algorithm:
 
search data in cases multiple fuzzyconditions for attribute with
θ 
operation.
Input
: A class C consists of a set of attributes and methods.C = {o
i
| i = 1..n}.o
i
=<{a
1
, a
2
, .., a
p
}, M>.where a
i
is attribute, M is set methods.
Output
:
o
C satisfy condition
1
pi
θ 
=
(
o.a
i
=
i
fz value
)(where
o.a
i
is attribute value i of object).
Method
Initialization.(1)
For
i = 1 to p
do
(2)
Begin
 (3) Set
i
a
G
= {
0
,
i
a
c
,
,
+
i
a
c
,
1
},
i
a
=
+
i
a
 
 
i
a
.Where
+
i
a
= {
h
1
,
h
2
},
i
a
= {
h
3
,
h
4
}, with
h
1
<
h
2
and
h
3
>
h
4
. Select the fuzzy measure for the generating element andhedge.(4)
]max,[min
iii
aaa
D
=
// 
i
a
min
,
i
a
max
: min and maxvalue of domain a
i
.(5)
End
 (6)
For
each o
C
do
 (7)
For
i = 1 to p
do
 (8) Convert
o.a
i
into interval [a
t
, b
t
] respective;// 
 
used function f to convert interval [a, b] into subsegment [0,1]
 (9)
For
each object o
C
do
(10)
For
i = 1 to p
do
 (11)
o.a
i
= [
(a
t
),
(b
t
)];// 
Construct fuzzy measure
( )
i
a j
I x
keep partition k level.
 (12)
= 1;(13)
While
 
 
4
do
// 
level partition largest with k 
= 4(14)
Begin
 (15)
For
i = 1 to p
do
 (16)
For
j = 1 to
5
2 ( 1)
do
 (17) Construct fuzzy measure
level:
( )
i
a j
I x
;(18)
=
+ 1;(19)
End
 // 
Determine partition k level of 
 
i
fz value
 
(20)
For
i = 1 to p
do
 (21)
Begin
(22) t=0;(23)
Repeat
 (24) t=t+1;(25)
Until
 
i
fz value
 
 
( )
i
a
I x
;(26)
( )
i
k k i i a
X X I x
=
;(27)
End
 (28)
For
each o
C
do
 (29)
If 
 
1
pi
θ 
=
(
o.a
i
 
i
)
then
 
1
pi
θ 
=
(
o.a
i
=
i
);
 SFTVM algorithm:
 
search data cases single fuzzy conditionsfor method.
In the object-oriented database model, class is defined as aset of characteristics, including attributes and methodsdetermine objects of this class. Each method is performed as afunction operation on attribute values of objects. So, findingthe data in this case, we convert interval values of attributewhich handling on it with the corresponding domain intosubsegment [0, 1], corresponder. Further, we choose thefunction combination of hedge algebras that are consistentwith method that its operation. Then, domain of method issubsegment [0, 1].At last, we perform finding the intersection parts of twosubsegment [0, 1] this.
Input
: A class C consists of a set of attributes and methods.C = {o
i
| i = 1..n}.o
i
=<{a
1
, a
2
, …, a
p
}, {M
1
, M
2
, …, M
m
}>.where a
i
is attribute, M
j
is method.
Output
:
o
C satisfy condition
o.M 
i
=
fzp value
 
(
o.M 
i
 is the return value of method).
Method
Initialization.
3

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