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Multiresolution Wavelet And Locally Weighted Projection Regression Method For Surface Roughness Measurements

Multiresolution Wavelet And Locally Weighted Projection Regression Method For Surface Roughness Measurements

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Published by ijcsis
This paper presents the benefits of using coiflet wavelet for feature extraction from the surface
roughness image. The features extracted are learnt by the Locally weighted projection regression network
(LWPR) method. The image captured through Charge coupled device (CCD) camera undergoes preprocessing to remove noise and enhance the quality of image to make the details of the pixels more clear. The image is decomposed by using coiflet wavelet. Four level of decomposition is done to obtain detailed information, Entropy measure is applied and subsequently Locally weighted projection regression network method (LWPR) is used for training the entropy calculated. The target values labeled are with surface roughness within the limits or not. The values are trained using LWPR and a set of final weights are obtained. Using this final weight values, different portion of the image is analyzed to verify, if the roughness is within the limit or not .
This paper presents the benefits of using coiflet wavelet for feature extraction from the surface
roughness image. The features extracted are learnt by the Locally weighted projection regression network
(LWPR) method. The image captured through Charge coupled device (CCD) camera undergoes preprocessing to remove noise and enhance the quality of image to make the details of the pixels more clear. The image is decomposed by using coiflet wavelet. Four level of decomposition is done to obtain detailed information, Entropy measure is applied and subsequently Locally weighted projection regression network method (LWPR) is used for training the entropy calculated. The target values labeled are with surface roughness within the limits or not. The values are trained using LWPR and a set of final weights are obtained. Using this final weight values, different portion of the image is analyzed to verify, if the roughness is within the limit or not .

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Published by: ijcsis on Mar 08, 2011
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MULTIRESOLUTION WAVELET ANDLOCALLY WEIGHTED PROJECTIONREGRESSION METHOD FOR SURFACEROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS
1
Chandra Rao Madane and
2
Dr 
..
S.Purushothaman
1
Chandra Rao Madane,
Research Scholar,Department of Mechanical Engineering,Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, Tamilnadu,India, E-Mail:madane61@yahoo.com 
2
 
Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal
,Sun College of Engineering and Technology,Sun Nagar, Erachakulum,Kanyakumari district-629902, IndiaE-Mail: dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com
Abstract--
This paper presents the benefits of usingcoiflet wavelet for feature extraction from the surfaceroughness image. The features extracted are learnt bythe Locally weighted projection regression network(LWPR) method. The image captured through Chargecoupled device (CCD) camera undergoes preprocessingto remove noise and enhance the quality of image tomake the details of the pixels more clear. The image isdecomposed by using coiflet wavelet. Four level of decomposition is done to obtain detailed information,Entropy measure is applied and subsequently Locallyweighted projection regression network method(LWPR) is used for training the entropy calculated. Thetarget values labeled are with surface roughness withinthe limits or not. The values are trained using LWPRand a set of final weights are obtained. Using this finalweight values, different portion of the image is analyzedto verify, if the roughness is within the limit or notKeywords- Locally weighted projectionregression network method (LWPR),
 
discrete wavelet(DWT)
1.
 
INTRODUCTIONMeasuring a rough surface is based on greylevels corresponding to the surface texture. Deeper avalley, the darker the corresponding pixel, the higher a peak, the brighter the corresponding area in theimage. Modern instruments can give a three-dimensional (3D) measure of a surface. There is nosingle technique that can be used to entirelycharacterize a texture. Image is analyzed at onesingle-scale; a limitation that can be removed byemploying a multiscale representation of the texturessimilar to wavelet transform. Wavelets have alreadybeen applied successfully as a tool for characterizingengineered surfaces with one-dimensional (1D)profiles but also in 2D for characterizing someparticular engineering applications. Industrialinspection is a very popular field for using wavelets.They are well suited to detect the defects likescratches on a uniform texture. It should bementioned that for special monitoring tasks, imagesto be processed often come from a CCD camera.Surface finish is an apparent witness of toolmarks or - lack of same - on the machined surface of a work piece. Surface finish is a characteristic of anymachined surface [1-5]. It is sometimes calledsurface texture or roughness. The design engineer isusually the person who decides what the surfacefinish of a work piece should be. They base their reasoning on what the work piece is supposed to do.Here are a few examples that the engineer considerswhen applying a surface finish specification:
 
Good surface finishes increase the wear resistance of two work pieces in an assembly
 
Good surface finishes reduce the frictionbetween two work pieces in an assembly
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201141 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Surface finishes are usually specified with a "check mark" on the blueprint as shown in the Figure 1.Surface finishes are specified in micro inches and arelocated on the left side of the symbol above the check mark "V” shown Figure 1. The waviness requirement(if specified) is usually given in thousands of an inchand is located on the top right of the symbol. In theexample it is the value ".0015". The roughness widthrequirement (if specified) is usually given inthousands of an inch and is located on the bottomright of the symbol. In the example it is the value".002". The lay direction requirement (if specified) isusually represented by a symbol [6-10] and is locatedright below the roughness width requirement. In theexample it is the symbol for perpendicularity. Thegraphic below show the rest of the symbols [11].
Fig.1 Surface finish representation
2.
 
WAVELETS (WT)The WT was developed as an alternative tothe short time Fourier transform (STFT). A wavelet isa waveform with limited duration that has an averagevalue of zero. Comparing wavelets with sine waves,sinusoids do not have limited duration, they extendfrom minus to plus infinity and where sinusoids aresmooth and predictable [12]. Wavelet analysis is thebreaking up of a signal into shifted and scaledversions of the original (or 
mothe
r) wavelet.Mathematically, the process of Fourier analysis isrepresented by the
Fourier transfor 
m:(1)which is the sum over all time of the signal f(t)
 
multiplied by a complex exponential. The results of the transform are the Fourier coefficients, whichwhen multiplied by a sinusoid of frequency, yield theconstituent sinusoidal components of the originalsignal. Graphically, the process looks like:
Fig.2 Wavelet
The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) (Figure 3)is defined as the sum over all time of the signalmultiplied by scaled, shifted versions of the waveletfunction:(2)The result of the CWT is many wavelet coefficientsC, which are a function of scale and position.Multiplying each coefficient by the appropriatelyscaled and shifted wavelet yields the constituentwavelets of the original signal:
Fig.3 Continuous wavelet
Scaling
Scaling a wavelet simply means stretching (or compressing) it. The scale factor works exactly thesame with wavelets. The smaller the scale factor, themore “compressed” the wavelet.
Shifting
Shifting a wavelet simply means delaying (or hastening) its onset. Mathematically, delaying afunction by
Coiflet wavelet
Inspite of existing different wavelets, coiflet waveletwhose function has
2N 
moments equal to 0 and thescaling function has
2
N-1 moments equal to 0 has
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201142 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
been considered. The two functions have a support of length
N-1.The features are obtained from the Approximationand Details of the 4
th
level by using the followingequationsV1=1/d
(Approximation details) (3)Where d = Samples in a frame andV1 = Mean value of approximationV2=1/d
(Approximation or details –V1)) (4)
 
Where V2=Standard Deviation of approximationV3=maximum (Approximation or details) (5)V4=minimum (Approximation or details) (6)V5=norm (Approximation or Details)
2
(7)Where V5 = Energy value of frequency3.
 
.LOCALLY WEIGHTED PROJECTIONREGRESSION (LWPR)LWPR achieves better results in nonlinear functionapproximation in high dimensional spaces. It isinsensitive to redundant data. It uses linear modelslocally [13, 14]. Univariate regressions in selecteddirections are used in the input space. Thenonparametric local learning system learns rapidly. Ituses second order learning methods based onincremental training. Weight adjustments are donebased on local information only. Training LWPR isdone as follows,The 5 features obtained are used as inputs for theLWPR and the target values for training each surfaceroughness type is based on labeling.1.
 
Input extracted features from wavelet.2.
 
Initialize LWPR using diagonal distancematrix
α
, norm, meta rate and initial_ 
λ 
. Manyother variables can be initialized or madeconstants depending upon the requirements.3.
 
Create random numbers.4.
 
Choose input and target output of a pattern5.
 
Find global mean and variance of the patterns.6.
 
Normalize input and output.7.
 
Compute the weight.8.
 
Check if new random field has to be added.9.
 
Find mean square errors between target andthe estimated values.
10.
 
Repeat steps 5 to 9 until all the patterns arepresented
.
4
 
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
Fig.4 Training and testing
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201143 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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