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Gold

Gold

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Published by Nilüfer Gümüş

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Published by: Nilüfer Gümüş on Mar 08, 2011
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EPA 530-R-94-013NTIS PB94-170-305
T
ECHNICAL
R
ESOURCE
D
OCUMENT
EXTRACTION AND BENEFICIATION OFORES AND MINERALSVOLUME 2
GOLD
August 1994U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Solid WasteSpecial Waste Branch401 M Street, SWWashington, DC 20460
 
Technical Resource Document: Gold 
DISCLAIMER AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This document was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA). The mention of company or product names is not to be consideredan endorsement by the U.S. Government or the EPA.This Technical Resource Document consists of five sections. The firstsection is EPA's Profile of the gold industry; the remaining four sections areSite Visit Reports from site visits conducted by EPA. The Profile Sectionwas distributed for review to the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureauof Mines and Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, the Western Governors Association, theInterstate Mining Compact Commission, the American Mining Congress,and Environmental Public Interest Groups. Summaries of the commentsand EPA's responses are presented as an appendix to the Profile Section.The Site Visit Report Sections were reviewed by individual company, state,and Federal representatives who participated in the site visit. Commentsand EPA responses are included as Appendices to the specific Site VisitSections. EPA is grateful to all individuals who took the time to reviewsections of this Technical Resource Document.The use of the terms "extraction," "beneficiation," and "mineral processing"in the Profile section of this document is not intended to classify any wastestreams for the purposes of regulatory interpretation or application. Rather,these terms are used in the context of common industry terminology.
 
Technical Resource Document: Gold 
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.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11.1 INTRODUCTION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 ECONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INDUSTRY.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.3ORE CHARACTERIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1.3.1 Types of Gold Ore Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71.3.1.1 Sediment-Hosted Disseminated Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71.3.1.2 Volcanic-Hosted Epithermal Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71.3.1.3 Porphyry Copper-Related Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-71.3.1.4 Greenstone Gold Quartz Vein Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-81.3.2 Mineral Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-81.4 GOLD EXTRACTION AND BENEFICIATION PRACTICES.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 1.4.1 Extraction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-121.4.1.1 Surface Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-141.4.1.2 Underground Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-161.4.2 Beneficiation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-161.4.2.1 By-Product Gold (Flotation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-171.4.2.2 Gravity Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-181.4.2.3 Amalgamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-181.4.2.4 Cyanidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-181.5 WASTES AND OTHER MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH GOLD EXTRACTIONAND BENEFICIATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1-441.5.1 Extraction and Beneficiation Wastes and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-451.5.1.1 RCRA Defined Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-451.5.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-481.5.2 Waste and Materials Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-481.5.2.1 RCRA Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-491.5.2.2 Non-RCRA Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-501.6 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 1.6.1 Ground Water/Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-511.6.1.1 Acid Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-511.6.1.2 Mine Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-521.6.1.3 Release of Cyanide Solution From Active Heap Leach Units . . . . . . . . 1-521.6.1.4 Release From Heap Leach Piles During and After Closure(Reclamation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-531.6.2 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-541.6.2.1 Land Application of Spent Cyanide Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-541.6.2.2 Detoxification of Cyanide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-541.6.3 Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-561.6.3.1 Fugitive Dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-561.6.4 Damage Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-561.6.4.1 National Priorities List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-561.6.4.2 304(l) Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-561.7 CURRENT REGULATORY AND STATUTORY FRAMEWORK.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 1.7.1 Environmental Protection Agency Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-591.7.1.1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-591.7.1.2 Clean Water Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-591.7.1.3 Clean Air Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-621.7.2 Department of Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-63

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