(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 09, No.02, 2011
Improved Shape Content Based Image RetrievalUsing Multilevel Block Truncation Coding
, Sudeep D. Thepade
, Miti Kakaiya
, Priyadarshini Mukherjee
Ph.D.Research Scholar & Associate Professor,
B.Tech StudentComputer Engineering Department, MPSTME,
SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed
-to-be University)Mumbai, India
This paper presents improved content based imageretrieval (CBIR) techniques based on multilevel BlockTruncation Coding (BTC) using multiple threshold values. BlockTruncation Coding based feature is one of the CBIR methodsproposed using shape features of image. The shape averagingmethods used here are BTC Level
1, BTC Level
2, BTC Level
3 and BTC Level
4. Here the feature vector size per image isgreatly reduced by using mean of each plane and finding out thethreshold value. Then divide each plane using the thresholdvalue. In order to find out the performance of the algorithm,shape averaging is applied to calculate precision and recallvalues. Instead of using all pixel data of image as feature vectorfor image retrieval these six, twelve, twenty
four and forty
eight feature vectors for BTC Level
4 respectively, can be used. This results in betterperformance. The proposed CBIR techniques are tested ongeneric image database having 1000 images spread across 11categories. For each proposed CBIR technique 55 queries (5 percategory) are fired on the generic image database To compare theperformance of image retrieval techniques average precision andrecall are computed of all queries. The results have shown theperformance improvement (higher precision and recall values)with proposed methods compared to BTC Level-1.Keywords- Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), BTC Level-1,BTC Level-2, BTC Level-3, BTC Level - 4.
Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching fordocuments, for information within documents, and formetadata about documents, as well as that of searchingrelational databases and the World Wide Web. There is overlapin the usage of the terms data retrieval, document retrieval,information retrieval, and text retrieval, but each also has itsown body of literature, theory and technologies. IR isinterdisciplinary, based on computer science, mathematics,cognitive psychology, linguistics, statistics, and physics.Automated information retrieval systems are used to reducewhat has been called "information overload". Many universitiesand public libraries use IR systems to provide access to booksand journals. Web search engines are the most visible IRapplications. Images do have giant share in this informationbeing stored and retrieved.
Image search is a specialized data search used to findimages. User may give a keyword, sketch or an image to imagesearch engine for retrieving the relatively similar images fromthe image databases. The similarity used for search criteriacould be meta tags, color distribution in images andregion/shape attributes. Most traditional methods of imageretrieval utilize some method of adding metadata such ascaptioning, keywords, or descriptions to the images so thatretrieval can be performed over the annotation words. Thelimitations of text-based approach are that it is subject tohuman perception and the problem of annotation of images.Annotating every image is a cumbersome and expensive task.
Content-based image retrieval
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is the application of computer vision to the image retrieval problem, that is, theproblem of searching for digital images in large databases. Theterm 'content' in this context might refer to color, shapes andtextures. The color aspect can be achieved by the techniquesaveraging and histograms [4, 5, 7]. The texture aspect can beachieved by using transforms  or vector quantization [9,11, 15]. Finally the shape aspect can be achieved by usinggradient operators or morphological operators. Some of themajor areas of application are: Art collections, Medicaldiagnosis, Crime prevention, the military, Intellectualproperty, Architectural and engineering design andGeographical information and remote sensing systems.II.
Edge detection is very important in image analysis. Theedges give idea about the shapes of objects present in theimage. Hence they are useful for segmentation, registration,and identification of objects in a scene. The problem withedge extraction using gradient operators is that detection of edges is either in horizontal or in vertical directions, as thegradient operators take only the first order derivative of image.Shape feature extraction in image retrieval requires theextracted edges to be connected in order to reflect theboundaries of objects present in the image. Slope magnitudemethod is used along with the gradient operators (Sobel,Prewitt, Robert and Canny) to extract the shape features inform of connected boundaries. The process of applying theslope magnitude method is given as follows. First the imageneeds to be convolved with the Gx mask to get the x gradientand Gy mask to get the y gradient of the image. Then theindividual squares of both these gradients are taken. Square
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