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A New Approach to Model Reference Adaptive Control using Fuzzy Logic Controller for Nonlinear Systems

A New Approach to Model Reference Adaptive Control using Fuzzy Logic Controller for Nonlinear Systems

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Published by ijcsis
The aim of this paper is to design a fuzzy logic controller- based model reference adaptive intelligent controller. It consists of fuzzy logic controller along with a conventional Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The idea is to control the plant by conventional model reference adaptive controller with a suitable single reference model, and at the same time control the plant by fuzzy logic controller. In the conventional MRAC scheme, the controller is designed to realize plant output converges to reference model output based on the plant which is linear. This scheme is for controlling linear plant effectively with unknown parameters. However, using MRAC to control the nonlinear system at real time is difficult. In this paper, it is proposed to incorporate a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) in MRAC to overcome the problem. The control input is given by the sum of the output of conventional MRAC and the output of fuzzy logic controller. The rules for the fuzzy logic controller are obtained from the conventional PI controller. The proposed fuzzy logic controller-based Model Reference Adaptive controller can significantly improve the system’s behavior and force the system to follow the reference model and minimize the error between the model and plant output.
The aim of this paper is to design a fuzzy logic controller- based model reference adaptive intelligent controller. It consists of fuzzy logic controller along with a conventional Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The idea is to control the plant by conventional model reference adaptive controller with a suitable single reference model, and at the same time control the plant by fuzzy logic controller. In the conventional MRAC scheme, the controller is designed to realize plant output converges to reference model output based on the plant which is linear. This scheme is for controlling linear plant effectively with unknown parameters. However, using MRAC to control the nonlinear system at real time is difficult. In this paper, it is proposed to incorporate a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) in MRAC to overcome the problem. The control input is given by the sum of the output of conventional MRAC and the output of fuzzy logic controller. The rules for the fuzzy logic controller are obtained from the conventional PI controller. The proposed fuzzy logic controller-based Model Reference Adaptive controller can significantly improve the system’s behavior and force the system to follow the reference model and minimize the error between the model and plant output.

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Published by: ijcsis on Mar 08, 2011
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05/18/2011

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A New Approach to Model Reference AdaptiveControl using Fuzzy Logic Controller for NonlinearSystems
R.Prakash
Department of Electrical and Electrnics Engineering,Muthayammal Engineering College,Rasipuram, Tamilnadu, India.Email: prakashragu@yahoo.co.in
R.Anita
Department of Electrical and Electrnics Engineering,Institute of Road and Transport Technology,Erode, Tamilnadu, India.Email: anita_irtt@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to design a fuzzy logiccontroller- based model reference adaptive intelligentcontroller. It consists of fuzzy logic controller along with aconventional Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). Theidea is to control the plant by conventional model referenceadaptive controller with a suitable single reference model, andat the same time control the plant by fuzzy logic controller. Inthe conventional MRAC scheme, the controller is designed torealize plant output converges to reference model output basedon the plant which is linear. This scheme is for controllinglinear plant effectively with unknown parameters. However,using MRAC to control the nonlinear system at real time isdifficult. In this paper, it is proposed to incorporate a fuzzylogic controller (FLC) in MRAC to overcome the problem. Thecontrol input is given by the sum of the output of conventionalMRAC and the output of fuzzy logic controller. The rules forthe fuzzy logic controller are obtained from the conventional PIcontroller. The proposed fuzzy logic controller-based ModelReference Adaptive controller can significantly improve thesystem’s behavior and force the system to follow the referencemodel and minimize the error between the model and plantoutput.
Keywords
-
Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC),Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Proportional-Integral (PI)controller
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONModel Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is one of the main schemes used in adaptive system. Recently MRAChas received considerable attention, and many newapproaches have been applied to practical processes [1], [2].In the MRAC scheme, the controller is designed to realizeplant output converges to reference model output based onthe assumption that plant can be linearized. Therefore thisscheme is effective for controlling linear plants withunknown parameters. However, it may not assure forcontrolling nonlinear plants with unknown structure. It iswell known that fuzzy technique has been widely used inmany physical and engineering systems, especially forsystems with incomplete plant information [3]-[8]. Inaddition to fuzzy logic, it has been widely applied tocontroller designs for nonlinear systems [9]-[13].A learningapproach of combining MRAC with the use of fuzzysystems as reference models and controllers for controldynamical systems can be found in [14]. A hybrid approachby combing fuzzy controller and neural networks forlearning-based control is proposed in [15]. A problem of Fuzzy-Approximation-Based adaptive control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown nonlinearitiesand strict-feedback structure is discussed in [16]. AnAdaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)for speed and position estimation of permanent-magnetsynchronous generator presented in [17].An adaptive fuzzyoutput feedback control approach is proposed for Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) nonlinear systems without themeasurements of the states. It is discussed in [18]. Gadoue etal. presented a fuzzy logic adaptation mechanisms and it isused in model reference adaptive speed-estimation schemesthat are based on rotor flux[19].An adaptive fuzzy-baseddynamic feedback tracking controller will be developed fora large class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems involvingplant uncertainties and external disturbances and it isdiscussed in [20].Chang-Chun Hua et al. [21] presented anadaptive fuzzy-logic system and it is investigated for a classof uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems via dynamicoutput-feedback approach.A development of AdaptiveFuzzy Neural Network Control (AFNNC), including directand indirect frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, toachieve high-precision position tracking is discussed in [22].An-Min Zou et al. [23] proposed a controller for the robustbackstepping control of a class of nonlinear pure-feedback systems using fuzzy logic. A set of fuzzy controllers issynthesized to stabilize the nonlinear multiple time-delaylarge-scale system is presented in [24]In this paper a proposal of designing a fuzzy logiccontroller- based model reference adaptive intelligentcontroller is designed from a fuzzy logic controller inparallel with a MRAC. From the designed PI controller,fuzzy rules are generated and it is used to design a fuzzylogic controller. The fuzzy controller is connected in parallelwith an MRAC and its output is added and then given to theplant input. The fuzzy logic controller is used to compensatethe nonlinearity of the plant and it is not taken intoconsideration in the conventional MRAC. The role of MRAC is to perform the model matching for the uncertainlinearized system to a given reference model. Finally toconfirm the effectiveness of proposed method, it iscompared with the simulation results of the conventionalMRAC.II.
 
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMTo Consider a Single Input and Single Output (SISO),Linear Time Invariant (LTI) plant with strictly propertransfer function
)()()()()(
sRssusysG
PpPpP
(1)where
u
p
 
is the plant input and
y
p
is the plant output .Also,the reference model is given by
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201186 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
)()()()()(
sRsssysG
mmmmm
(2)where r and ym are the model’s input and output. To definethe output error as
mp
yye
(3)Now the objective is to design the control input u such asthat the output error e goes to zero asymptotically forarbitrary initial condition, where the reference signal r(t) ispiecewise continuous and uniformly bounded.III.
 
STRUCTURE OF AN MRAC DESIGN
A. Relative Degree n =1
As in Ref [1] the following input and output filters areused,
p
gu
11
  
(4)
p
gy
22
  
 where F is an
)1(*)1(
nn
stable matrix such as thatdet
)(
SI 
is a Hurwitz polynomial whose roots includethe zeros of the reference model and that (F,g) is acontrollable pair. It is defined as the “regressor” vector
p
y
],,,[
21
   
(5)In the standard adaptive control scheme, the control u isstructured as
  
u
(6)where
],,,[
0321
    
is a vector of adjustableparameters, and is considered as an estimate of a vector of unknown system parameters
θ*
.The dynamic of tracking error is
  
m
psGe
~)(
*
(7)where
mp
P
*
and
*
)(~
   
representsparameter error. Now in this case, since the transfer functionbetween the parameter error
 
~and the tracking error e isStrictly Positive Real (SPR) [1], the adaptation rule for the
controller gain θ is given by
 
*1
sgn
pe
  
(8)where
is a positive gain.
B. Relative Degree n =2
In the standard adaptive control scheme, the control u isstructured as
)sgn(
1
mp
eu
       
(9)where
],,,[
0321
    
is a vector of adjustableparameters, and is considered as an estimate of a vector of unknown system parameters
*
 
.The dynamic of tracking error is
  
m
ppssGe
~))((
*0
(10)where
mp
P
*
and
*
)(~
   
 represents the parameter error.
))((
0
pssG
m
is strictlyproper and Strictly Positive Real (SPR). Now in this case,since the transfer function between the parameter error
 
~
and the tracking error e is Strictly Positive Real (SPR),[1] and
the adaptation rule for the controller gain θ is given
)sgn(
1
mp
e
  
(11)where e1= yp-ym and
is a positive gain.The adaptive laws and control schemes developed arebased on a plant model that is free from disturbances, noiseand unmodelled dynamics. These schemes are to beimplemented on actual plants that most likely to deviatefrom the plant models on which their design is based. Anactual plant may be infinite in dimensions, nonlinear and itsmeasured input and output may be corrupted by noise andexternal disturbances. It is shown by using conventionalMRAC that adaptive scheme is designed for a disturbance-free plant model and may go unstable in the presence of small disturbances.IV.
 
PI CONTROLLER-BASED MODEL REFERENCEADAPTIVE CONTROLLERThe disturbance and nonlinear component are added tothe plant input of the conventional model reference adaptivecontroller, in this case the tracking error has not come tozero and the plant output is not tracked with the referencemodel plant output. The large amplitude of oscillations willcome with the entire period of the plant output and thetracking error has not come to zero .The disturbance isconsidered as a random noise signal. To improve the systemperformance, the PI controller-based model referenceadaptive controller is proposed. In this scheme, thecontroller is designed by using parallel combination of conventional MRAC system and PI controller.The transfer function of PI Controller is generallywritten in the “Parallel form” given (12) by or the “idealform’’ given by (13)
SSSSG
iPpiPI 
)()()(
(12)
)11(
iP
(13)where
pi
(s)
is the control signal, acting on the error signal
E(s),K 
p
is the proportional gain,
i
 
is the integral gain and
i
 is the integral time constant.The block diagram of the PI controller-based modelreference adaptive controller is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 PI controller-based MRAC
In the PI controller-based model reference adaptivecontroller, the value for the PI controller gains Kp and Kiare calculated by using the Ziegler–Nichols tuning method.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201187 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
The control input U of the plant is given by the followingequation,
pimr 
(14)
  
mr 
 
where Umr is the output of the adaptive controller and Upiis the output of the PI controller. The input of the PIcontroller is the error, in which the error is the differencebetween the plant output yp(t) and the reference modeloutput ym(t). In this case also, the disturbance (randomnoise signal) and nonlinear component is added to the inputof the plant .The PI controller- based model referenceadaptive controller effectively reduces the amplitude of oscillations of the plant output. In this case the tracking errorhas not come to zero. The PI controller-based modelreference adaptive controller improves the performancecompared with the conventional MRAC.V.
 
FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER-BASED MODELREFERENCE ADAPTIVE CONTROLLERTo make the system adaptable to more quickly andefficiently than conventional MRAC system and PIcontroller-based MRAC system, a new idea is proposed andimplemented. The new idea which is proposed in this paperis the fuzzy logic controller- based model reference adaptivecontroller. In this scheme, the controller is designed byusing parallel combination of conventional MRAC systemand fuzzy logic controller. The error and the change in errorare given input to the fuzzy logic controller. The rules andmembership function of fuzzy logic controller are formedfrom the input and output waveforms of PI controller of designed PI controller based MRAC scheme. The block diagram of fuzzy logic controller-based model referenceadaptive controller is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Fuzzy logic controller-based MRAC system
The state model of linear time invariant system is givenby the following form
)()()(
BU AX 
(15)
)()()(
DU CX 
 This scheme is restricted to a case of Single Input SingleOutput (SISO) control, noting that the extension to MultipleInput Multiple Output (MIMO) is possible. To keep theplant output yp converges to the reference model output ym,it is synthesized to control input U by the followingequation,
fcmr 
(16)where Umr is the output of the adaptive controller and Ufcis the output of the fuzzy logic controller
  
mr 
 
],,,[
0321
    
(17)
p
y
],,,[
21
   
 Stability of the system and adaptability are then achievedby an adaptive control law Umr tracking the system state xto a suitable reference model such as that the error e = yp-ym =0 asymptotically. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC)provides an adaptive control for better system performanceand solution for controlling nonlinear processes.The plant output is compared with the model referenceoutput. After comparison, the error and the change in errorare calculated and are given as input to the fuzzy controller.The error (e) and error change (ce) are defined as
)()()(
yye
pm
 
)1()()(
eece
 
where ym(k) is the response of the reference model at kthsampling interval, yp(k ) is the response of the plant outputat kth sampling interval, e(k) is the error signal at kthsampling interval, ce(k) is the error change signal at kthsampling interval.FLC consists of three stages: fuzzification, ruleexecution, and defuzzification. In the first stage, the crispvariables e(kT) and ce(kT) are converted into fuzzyvariables e and ce using the triangular membershipfunctions. Each fuzzy variable is a member of the subsetswith a degree of membership varying between ‘0’ (non-member) and ‘1’ (full member).In the second stage of theFLC, the fuzzy variables e and ce are processed by aninference engine that executes a set of control rulescontaining in a rule base. In this paper the control rules areformulated using the knowledge of the PI controller of designed PI controller-based MRAC system behavior andthe experience of Control Engineers. The reverse of fuzzification is called defuzzification. The FLC produces therequired output in a linguistic variable (fuzzy number).According to real-world requirements, the linguisticvariables have to be transformed to crisp output. As thecentroid method is considered to be the best well-knowndefuzzification method, it is utilized in the proposed method.
A. Construction of Fuzzy Rules:
Consider an example of a PI controller input (error),change in error and PI controller output waveforms aregiven by Fig. 3.By using the Fig.3, Fuzzy rules and membership forerror (e) and change in error (ce) and output (Ufc ) arecreatedThe developed fuzzy rules are1.
 
If error is ‘A’ and change in error is ‘A’
 
then the output is‘D’2.
 
If error is ‘B’ and change in error is ‘B’
 
then the output is‘F’3.
 
If error is ‘C’ and change in error is ‘D’
 
then the output is‘H’4. If error is ‘D’ and change in error is ‘F’ then the output is‘J’5. If error is ‘E’ and change in error is ‘C’ then the output isA
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201188 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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