)()()()()(
sRsZ K sr sysG
mmmmm
(2)where r and ym are the model’s input and output. To definethe output error as
mp
yye
(3)Now the objective is to design the control input u such asthat the output error e goes to zero asymptotically forarbitrary initial condition, where the reference signal r(t) ispiecewise continuous and uniformly bounded.III.
STRUCTURE OF AN MRAC DESIGN
A. Relative Degree n =1
As in Ref [1] the following input and output filters areused,
p
guF
11
(4)
p
gyF
22
where F is an
)1(*)1(
nn
stable matrix such as thatdet
)(
F SI
is a Hurwitz polynomial whose roots includethe zeros of the reference model and that (F,g) is acontrollable pair. It is defined as the “regressor” vector
T pT T
r y
],,,[
21
(5)In the standard adaptive control scheme, the control u isstructured as
T
u
(6)where
T
C
],,,[
0321
is a vector of adjustableparameters, and is considered as an estimate of a vector of unknown system parameters
θ*
.The dynamic of tracking error is
T m
psGe
~)(
*
(7)where
mp
k k P
*
and
*
)(~
t
representsparameter error. Now in this case, since the transfer functionbetween the parameter error
~and the tracking error e isStrictly Positive Real (SPR) [1], the adaptation rule for the
controller gain θ is given by
*1
sgn
pe
(8)where
is a positive gain.
B. Relative Degree n =2
In the standard adaptive control scheme, the control u isstructured as
)/ sgn(
1
mpT T T T
K K eu
(9)where
T
C
],,,[
0321
is a vector of adjustableparameters, and is considered as an estimate of a vector of unknown system parameters
*
.The dynamic of tracking error is
T m
ppssGe
~))((
*0
(10)where
mp
k k P
*
and
*
)(~
t
represents the parameter error.
))((
0
pssG
m
is strictlyproper and Strictly Positive Real (SPR). Now in this case,since the transfer function between the parameter error
~
and the tracking error e is Strictly Positive Real (SPR),[1] and
the adaptation rule for the controller gain θ is given
)/ sgn(
1
mp
K K e
(11)where e1= yp-ym and
is a positive gain.The adaptive laws and control schemes developed arebased on a plant model that is free from disturbances, noiseand unmodelled dynamics. These schemes are to beimplemented on actual plants that most likely to deviatefrom the plant models on which their design is based. Anactual plant may be infinite in dimensions, nonlinear and itsmeasured input and output may be corrupted by noise andexternal disturbances. It is shown by using conventionalMRAC that adaptive scheme is designed for a disturbance-free plant model and may go unstable in the presence of small disturbances.IV.
PI CONTROLLER-BASED MODEL REFERENCEADAPTIVE CONTROLLERThe disturbance and nonlinear component are added tothe plant input of the conventional model reference adaptivecontroller, in this case the tracking error has not come tozero and the plant output is not tracked with the referencemodel plant output. The large amplitude of oscillations willcome with the entire period of the plant output and thetracking error has not come to zero .The disturbance isconsidered as a random noise signal. To improve the systemperformance, the PI controller-based model referenceadaptive controller is proposed. In this scheme, thecontroller is designed by using parallel combination of conventional MRAC system and PI controller.The transfer function of PI Controller is generallywritten in the “Parallel form” given (12) by or the “idealform’’ given by (13)
SK K SE SU SG
iPpiPI
)()()(
(12)
)11(
iP
T K
(13)where
U
pi
(s)
is the control signal, acting on the error signal
E(s),K
p
is the proportional gain,
K
i
is the integral gain and
T
i
is the integral time constant.The block diagram of the PI controller-based modelreference adaptive controller is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 PI controller-based MRAC
In the PI controller-based model reference adaptivecontroller, the value for the PI controller gains Kp and Kiare calculated by using the Ziegler–Nichols tuning method.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 201187 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500