(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
For the AODVM  protocol, the intermediate nodesrecord all received RREQ packets in routing table. They do notdiscard the duplicate RREQ packets. The final destination nodesends an RREP for all the received RREQ packets. Anintermediate node forwards a received RREP packet to theneighbor in the routing table to reach source node. Each nodecannot participate in more than one route.III.
In this paper, we propose framework of adaptive routeprotocol based on the AODV protocol and broadcastmechanism. AODV protocol is configured in the network withtopology changed randomly because of the freely movingmobile nodes. In this circumstance, node failure occursfrequently. Therefore, AODV should capable to sense the pathfor nodes involved between source and final destination toprevent path breakthrough caused by node failure. Thisframework generates route search process immediately afterthe established main route is broken. It uses RREQ and RREPpackets which are broadcasted to appropriate active neighbornodes in order to incorporate in the main route on behalf of source-final destination path. Such this adaptive single hoprouting may consume a lesser amount of energy in comparisonto multi hop routing. In addition, this framework gets itsadvantage in the case transmission of larger packets where thefragmented packets should reach the final destination withhigher successful transmission.The proposed framework assumes that nodes are capable of dynamically adjusting their relay nodes on per move step base.This behavior is almost similar to MANET routing protocols(e.g., AODV, DSR and TORA). One common property of these routing protocols is that they discover routes usingbroadcast flooding protocols whose value of distance metric inorder to minimize the number of relay nodes between anysource and final destination pair.
Simulation cover a single area of homogeneous nodes thatcommunicate with each other using the broadcast services of IEEE 802.11. There are nodes with different roles simulated inthis simulation, namely initiator node/source node, receivernode, sender node, destination node, and final destination node.Initiator node/source node is node that initiates transmission of packet. Packet can be either route discovery or datatransmission. Like other nodes, initiator is always moving withrandom direction, speed, and distance. At the time it is moving,initiator node is always sensing its neighbor to maintainconnectivity. Receiver node is node that can be reached bysource/sender node. Nodes are defined as neighbors if it locatedwithin its distance radius range. At initial time, node senses itsneighbors before packet data is required to be transmitted.Coverage neighbor nodes always receive packets that arebroadcasted from sender. Destination node is selected receivernode in multi hop transmission that should relay packets to thenext receiver node. Final destination node is node that becamethe end destination of packets.Wireless link channel is assumed to have no physical noise;i.e., the errors in packet reception due to fading and otherexternal interferences are not considered as a serious problem.Packets from sender to receiver will be transmitted as long asthe bandwidth capacity is sufficient and the received signal tonoise ratio (SNR) is above a certain minimum value. Thus eachpacket received is acknowledged at the link layer and de-encapsulate at the higher layer. Each node is capable of measuring the received SNR by analyzing overhead of packets.A constant bit error rate (BER) is defined for the wholenetwork. Whenever a packet is going to be sent, a randomnumber is generated and compared to the packet’s CRC. If therandom number is greater, the message is received, otherwise itis lost. The default value for the BER is 0, which means there isno packet loss due to physical link error.The layered concept of networking was developed toaccommodate changes in local layer protocol mechanism. Eachlayer is responsible for a different function of the network. Itwill pass information up and down to the next subsequent layeras data is processed. Among the seven layers in the OSIreference model, the link layer, network layer, and transportlayer are 3 main layers of network. The framework isconfigured in those layers. Genuine packets are initiated atProtocol layer, and then delivered sequentially to next layer asassumed that fragmented packets to be randomly distributed.Simulation models each layer owned with finite buffers.Limited buffer makes packets are queued up according to thedrop tail queuing principle. When a node has packets totransmit, they are queued up provide the queue contains lessthan K elements (K
1). To increase the randomization of thesimulation process, simulation introduces some delay on somecommon processes in the network, like message transmissiondelay, processing delay, time out, etc. This behavior will resultthat at each instance of a simulation would produce differentresults. The packets exchanged between sender and receiver isof a fixed rate transmission
based on a Poisson distribution.Nodes that have packet queued are able to transmit it out usingin each available bi-directional link channel.Energy is power kept in each node. The energyconsumption required to transmit a packet between nodes Aand B is similar to that energy required between nodes B and Aif and only if the distance and the size of packet are same. Thecoverage distance range of the nodes is a perfect symmetricunit disk (omni-directional). If d
x and y can seeeach other. This assumption may be acceptable in the conditionthat interference in both directions is similar in space and time;which is not always the case. Usually interference-free MediaAccess Control (MAC) protocol such as Channel SenseMultiple Access (CSMA) may exist. Heinzelman et al.assumed that the radio dissipates E
= 50 nJ/bit to run thetransmitter or receiver circuitry and
= 100 pJ/bit/m
for thetransmit amplifier . The radio model is shown in the Fig.1 below.
Figure 1: The radio model.
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