(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
effort. In the case of first-order filters, an edge is interpreted asan abrupt variation in gray level between two neighbor pixels.The goal in this case is to determine in which points in theimage the first derivative of the gray level as a function of position is of high magnitude. By applying the threshold to thenew output image, edges in arbitrary directions are detected.In other ways the output of the edge detection filter is theinput of the polygonal approximation technique to extractfeatures which to be measured. A very important role is playedin image analysis by what are termed feature points, pixelsthat are identified as having a special property. Feature pointsinclude edge pixels as determined by the well-known classicedge detectors of PreWitt, Sobel, Roberts, Canny and SpatialFiltering. Classical operators identify a pixel as a particularclass of feature point by carrying out some series of operationswithin a window centered on the pixel under scrutiny. Theclassic operators work well in circumstances where the area of the image under study is of high contrast. In fact, classicoperators work very well within regions of an image that canbe simply converted into a binary image by simplethresholding.This paper is organized as follows. Section II is for thepurpose of providing some information about edge detection.Section III is focused on simulation results and also focusedon comparison of various Edge Detection Methods. Section IVpresents the conclusion.II.
Edge detection techniques transform images to edge imagesbenefiting from the changes of grey tones in the images. Edgesare the sign of lack of continuity, and ending. As a result of this transformation, edge image is obtained withoutencountering any changes in physical qualities of the mainimage. Objects consist of numerous parts of different colorlevels. In an image with different grey levels, despite anobvious change in the grey levels of the object, the shape of the image can be distinguished in Fig.1.
Figure 1. Type of Edges (a) Step Edge (b) Ramp Edge (c) Line Edge (d)Roof Edge
An Edge in an image is a significant local change in theimage intensity, usually associated with a discontinuity ineither the image intensity or the first derivative of the imageintensity. Discontinuities in the image intensity can be eitherStep edge, where the image intensity abruptly changes fromone value on one side of the discontinuity to a different valueon the opposite side, or Line Edges, where the image intensityabruptly changes value but then returns to the starting valuewithin some short distance. However, Step and Line edges arerare in real images. Because of low frequency components orthe smoothing introduced by most sensing devices, sharpdiscontinuities rarely exist in real signals. Step edges becomeRamp Edges and Line Edges become Roof edges, whereintensity changes are not instantaneous but occur over a finitedistance. Illustrations of these edge shapes are shown in Fig.1.
Steps in Edge Detection
Edge detection contain three steps namely Filtering,Enhancement and Detection. The overview of the steps inedge detection are as follows.
Images are often corrupted by randomvariations in intensity values, called noise. Some commontypes of noise are salt and pepper noise, impulse noise andGaussian noise. Salt and pepper noise contains randomoccurrences of both black and white intensity values.However, there is a trade-off between edge strength and noisereduction. More filtering to reduce noise results in a loss of edge strength.
In order to facilitate the detection of edges,it is essential to determine changes in intensity in theneighborhood of a point. Enhancement emphasizes pixelswhere there is a significant change in local intensity valuesand is usually performed by computing the gradientmagnitude.
Many points in an image have a nonzero valuefor the gradient, and not all of these points are edges for aparticular application. Therefore, some method should be usedto determine which points are edge points. Frequently,thresholding provides the criterion used for detection.
Edge Detection Methods
Three most frequently used edge detection methods are usedfor comparison. These are (1) Roberts Edge Detection, (2)Sobel Edge Detection, (3) Prewitt edge detection and (4)Canny edge detection. One the other method in edge detectionis spatial filtering. The details of methods as follows:
1) The Roberts Detection:
The Roberts Cross operatorperforms a simple, quick to compute, 2-D spatial gradientmeasurement on an image. It thus highlights regions of highspatial frequency which often correspond to edges. In its mostcommon usage, the input to the operator is a grayscale image,as is the output. Pixel values at each point in the outputrepresent the estimated absolute magnitude of the spatialgradient of the input image at that point. Fig.2. shows RobertsMask.
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