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Video Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms

Video Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms

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Published by ijcsis
The rapid growth of wireless communication and networking protocols, such as H802.11 and cellular mobile networks, is bringing video into our lives anytime and anywhere on any device. The video delivery over a wireless network faces several challenges going forward such as limitation, bandwidth variation, and high error rate so on. This paper proposed a new approach to improve the performance of video delivery, called Video Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and Tabu Search algorithms. In this paper, GA is used to find the faceable paths and Tabu search is used to select the best path from those paths that help to enhance the bandwidth delay and to improve the packet loss for wireless video content delivery.
The rapid growth of wireless communication and networking protocols, such as H802.11 and cellular mobile networks, is bringing video into our lives anytime and anywhere on any device. The video delivery over a wireless network faces several challenges going forward such as limitation, bandwidth variation, and high error rate so on. This paper proposed a new approach to improve the performance of video delivery, called Video Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and Tabu Search algorithms. In this paper, GA is used to find the faceable paths and Tabu search is used to select the best path from those paths that help to enhance the bandwidth delay and to improve the packet loss for wireless video content delivery.

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Published by: ijcsis on Mar 08, 2011
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07/17/2011

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Video Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and Tabu Search Algorithms
Nibras Abdullah
1
, Mahmoud Baklizi
1
, Ola Al-wesabi
2
, Ali Abdulqader
1
, Sureswaran Ramadass
1
, Sima Ahmadpour
1
 
1: { abdullahfaqera, mbaklizi, ali, sures, sima}@nav6.org , ola_osabi@yahoo.com
1: National Advanced IPv6 Centre of Excellence1: Universiti Sains Malaysia1: Penang, Malaysia
Abstract
The rapid growth of wireless communication andnetworking protocols, such as H802.11 and cellular mobilenetworks, is bringing video into our lives anytime and anywhereon any device. The video delivery over a wireless network facesseveral challenges going forward such as limitation, bandwidthvariation, and high error rate so on. This paper proposed a newapproach to improve the performance of video delivery, calledVideo Delivery based on Multi-Constraint Genetic and TabuSearch algorithms. In this paper, GA is used to find the faceablepaths and Tabu search is used to select the best path from thosepaths that help to enhance the bandwidth delay and to improvethe packet loss for wireless video content delivery.
Keywords-; GA, Tabu Search, Multi-hop network, and Videodelivery.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
In recent years, one of the real time applications is videoconference systems that are widely used. In additions, real-time embedded systems are found in many diverse applicationareas including automotive electronics, avionics,telecommunications, space systems, medical imaging, andconsumer electronics. The transport of real time video streamsover the Internet by using wired and wireless multimediadelivery faces several challenges such as random channelvariation, bandwidth scarcity and limited storage capacity [1].The quality of service (QoS) of the video should haveassurance of low bit rate. In addition, there are differentapplications have various QoS requirements to achieve users'satisfaction. QoS depends on some of the parameters such as:throughput, bandwidth, delay, error rate control, and packetloss [2][3][4][5]. According to those parameters, thetransportation paths are chosen. Nowadays, optimal pathrouting algorithms do not support alternate routing. If theexisting path is the best path, and it cannot accept a new flow,the associated traffic cannot be transmitted, even if theappropriate alternative path is existing. Hence, clearly thequality of service routing algorithms must be adaptable,flexible, and intelligent enough to make a fast decision. Toachieve this, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on thecomputational strategies that inspired by natural processes isused. GA is a global optimization technique derived from theprinciple of nature selection and evolutionary computing ortechnique [6][7][8][9]. GA- theoretically and empirically- hasbeen proven to be a robust search technique. Each possiblepoint in the search space of the problem is encoded into asuitable representation for applying GA. In GA, eachpopulation of individual solutions with fitness value istransformed to a new generation of the population, dependingon the Darwinian principle of the survival of the fitness. Byapplying genetic operators, such as crossover and mutation,GA produces better approximations to the solutions. Many routing algorithms based on GA have been proposed[2][10][11]. Selection and reproduction processing at eachiteration produces a new generation of approximations. Theoutline of the basic GA is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1. Outline of the basic GA [12]Genetic representation is considered the encoding of thesolutions as arrays of integers.The stages of a GA are:1. Select initial population2. Determine the fitness of all initial individuals of thepopulation3. Do1. Select the best-ranking individuals to reproduce.2. Breed a new generation through crossover and mutation(genetic operations) and give birth to offspring.3. Evaluate the individual fitness of the offspring.4. Replace the lowest ranked part of population withoffspring.4. While (not terminating condition).In this paper, we propose a new approach based on geneticalgorithm combined with Tabu search technique to get theability to use the past experiences to improve current decision-making to choose the efficiency paths.Tabu search is a global heuristic technique which attempts toprevent from falling into local optimum by making a special 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011136 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
list called Tabu. Every solution has been recently chosen isassigned in a Tabu list that is called "taboo" for a short periodof time depending on this list length. This decreases the  probability of repeating in the same solution and so that itmakes more opportunities for enhancement by moving into the  unexplored areas of the search space. In 1997, Glover and Laguna give in their work a comprehensive description of  Tabu search technique [13]. In addition, many algorithmsbased on Tabu Search has been done and gotten much betterimprovements [14][15][16]. The basic idea of the Tabu searchtechnique is shown in Figure 2.Figure 2. Tabu search techniqueII.
 
P
ROBLEM STATEMENTS
There are several basic challenges should be solved toprovide high quality of multimedia delivery on multi-hopwireless networks.- It is familiar that the rate of the error bit (BER) of wirelessnetwork is much higher than that in the links of the wired line.The shared wireless media and contention from neighbortraffic increase the exacerbation the restrictions of bandwidthand then attend the error of the channel in the multi-hopnetwork. The compressed bit stream is fragile in the face of the loss of the channel while video coder can compress videoefficiently such as MPEG and H.26x.- The congestion in the wireless network is not the onlyreason for losses of the packet which there are many packetlosses come as a consequence of the random channel error thatcan be measured over multi-hope network [17]. On otherhands, routing change/ break that frequently occurred in multi-hop networks is considered another reason of packet losses.These packet losses should be awarded because it is critical toperform correct error control and resource allocation,especially for multimedia streaming applications.- The need for increasing QoS support mechanisms in multi-hop wireless networks which the standard multi-hopenetworks- IEEE 802.11- has a serious shortcoming in theenvironment of a multi-hop because of contention from aneighbor traffics and hidden terminal effects.-Routing layer, MAC layer, and physical layer togethercompete for the network resource in a wireless network. Forwireless networks, the traditional "layered" protocol stack isnot sufficient because of the direct connecting between thephysical layer and the upper layers [18].Multimedia video applications have diverse QoSrequirements. The QoS requirements are expressed by the QoSparameters. The QoS parameters are: delay, hop count, Jitterdelay, bit rate error, and bandwidth.Consider a Network 
G (N, E)
, where
is the set of nodes, and
is the set of edges in which each link (
u
 
 
v
)
ϵ
 
that isassociated with link weights
wi
(
u
 
 
v
)
0, for all
i
= 1, ...
l
.Given
l
constraint
Ki
, where
i
= 1, ...
l,
the multiple constraintproblem is to find a path p from the source (initial node,
i
) todestination node
as shown in Figure 3.Figure 3. A sample Network III.
 
P
ROPOSED
M
ETHOD
 The flowchart of the proposed method as shown in Figure 4represents how to solve the problem by getting a faceable path
p
from source node
i
to destination node
such that:
p=
→ ≤ 
for all  = 1,,
→∈
…(1)Where,
Population
- is all available paths.
Parent Selection
- is a selection strategy that selects twoindividuals from the population with the lowest fitness value.
Recombination
- is basically Crossover and Mutation.
Survivor Selection
- replaces two individuals from thepopulation with the lowest offspring.i12t35674
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011137 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Termination
- means the termination by time iterations or thecondition is achieved.
Representation and Encoding-
Encoding is one of theproblems that are found when GA is used for getting asolution. Encoding depends on the problem that GA is applied.In this paper, the genes are represented by the tree junction,and the network is represented by a tree network [19]. Thelength of every chromosome is the same using this codingmethod and the genetic operations are achieved in the treejunction. The encoding procedure represents in Figure 3 as asample network which node
i
is the source node and t is thedestination node.
Initial Population-
is generated randomly by choosingfeasible points in the gene coding that forms a path.Population size refers to the number of chromosomes thatidentified in one generation. GA has a few probabilities toexecute the crossover when there are a few chromosomeswhich a small part of the search is observed. Moreover, GAwill slow down if there are numerous chromosomes. In ourproposal, the size of the initial population depends on thenumber of the outgoing links from the source.Figure 4. Proposed Algorithm flowchart
Fitness function Evaluation-
The correlation of fitness value toevery solution is accomplished during of a fitness function.The fitness function that is utilized in this paper to find thefaceable paths is given in equation 2.
= max


…. 2
 Where
, l
is the total number of constraints presumed,
p
is thepath,
Ki
is the maximum compatible constraint valueidentified for the application, and
wi
is the link weights whichis static and depends on the physical proprieties of the link.The initial population with the fitness value will compute foreach chromosome.
Chromosome Selection
- Chromosomes are chosen from theinitial population to be parents. Depending on Darwin’sevolution theory, the best Chromosomes should be alive andgenerate offspring. Many methods are available for selectingthe chromosomes such as elitism selection, steady stateselection, tournament selection, roulette wheel selection, etc.In this paper, we prefer to use the elitism selection method.Elitism is the method which copies the best chromosomes tonew population. The operation of genetic is done by selectingthe chromosomes, sorting them depend on the fitness value inthe initial population, and then choosing the first two at the topof the list.
Crossover and Mutation
- are two fundamental factors of GA,which is considered the main performance of GA. Theseoperations will be implemented by encoding that depends onthe problem that will be solved by GA [2]. We prefer in thispaper to use a single point crossover at the tree junction togenerate new offspring. The mutation point chosen is thepoints that cause the infringement of satisfaction of constraint.The proposed method is divided into two parts: Preprocessingpart and processing part as the following:
Preprocessing part
: In this part, a short message sendsthrough the faceable (available) paths from the initial point(client) to the target point (server), including the time and thelength of a message. A wireless network is connected bymulti-hops and routers as shown in Figure 3. Then, geneticalgorithm is used to find the available paths to the server thatis considered the central point for communications. After that,those paths will store in Tabu list, which determines theefficient paths by Tabu search technique in the processingpart.
Processing part
: The efficient path will be chosen from Tabulist in this part. After receiving the message, the informationthat is included in the message will be used as attributes andrestrictions in the fitness function to decide the efficient path,using the fitness function in equation 2.
Fitness
We need fitness to select and evaluate the parent and childto know what the best path for the next generation and toexclude the worst one. Fitness function will depend on thecount of hops, delay, bandwidth chromosome, and Jitter delay.The most common parameters that used in the fitness functionare path number, hop number, delay, Jitter delay, bandwidth,and efficient path, which denoted by
,
P
,
,
RC 
,
dp
, and
lp
,
Initial population
 
Evaluate the fitnessSelect individuals
 Computations
Terminatingcondition
 
Replace population
 List of FaceablepathFaceablepathTabusearch listYesNoTabualgorithm
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011138 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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