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Optimization of ACC using Soft Computing Technique

# Optimization of ACC using Soft Computing Technique

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The important feature of the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system is the ability to maintain a proper inter-vehicle gap based on the speed of leading vehicle and the desired distance. Adaptive Cruise Control operates in two modes (i) Velocity Control mode, (ii) Distance Control mode. ACC acts like a conventional Cruise Controller (CC) under velocity control mode. In the case of the distance control mode, the speed of the host vehicle is reduced according to the surrounding environment to maintain the safe distance between the leading vehicle and the host vehicle. 25 rules have been used in Fuzzy logic Controller (FLC) with the knowledge base of the system. The inputs of the FLC are distance error and the speed error. The host vehicle adapts to the lead vehicle speed changes and tries to maintain a proper distance between them. The performance of the FLC based ACC is improved by Genetic Algorithm to tune the fuzzy rule base. Genetic Programming is used to select the best rule out of the 25 for a corresponding input. The result showed a better improvement over the Fuzzy Controlled System.
The important feature of the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system is the ability to maintain a proper inter-vehicle gap based on the speed of leading vehicle and the desired distance. Adaptive Cruise Control operates in two modes (i) Velocity Control mode, (ii) Distance Control mode. ACC acts like a conventional Cruise Controller (CC) under velocity control mode. In the case of the distance control mode, the speed of the host vehicle is reduced according to the surrounding environment to maintain the safe distance between the leading vehicle and the host vehicle. 25 rules have been used in Fuzzy logic Controller (FLC) with the knowledge base of the system. The inputs of the FLC are distance error and the speed error. The host vehicle adapts to the lead vehicle speed changes and tries to maintain a proper distance between them. The performance of the FLC based ACC is improved by Genetic Algorithm to tune the fuzzy rule base. Genetic Programming is used to select the best rule out of the 25 for a corresponding input. The result showed a better improvement over the Fuzzy Controlled System.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Optimization of ACC using Soft ComputingTechnique
S.Paul Sathiyan
EEE DepartmentKarunya UniversityCoimbatore, Indiapaul.sathiyan@gmail.com
A.Wisemin Lins
EEE DepartmentKarunya UniversityCoimbatore, Indiawisemineee@gmail.comDr. S. Suresh KumarEEE DepartmentKarunya UniversityCoimbatore, Indiapaul.sathiyan@gmail.com
Abstract
The important feature of the Adaptive CruiseControl (ACC) system is the ability to maintain a properinter-vehicle gap based on the speed of leading vehicle andthe desired distance. Adaptive Cruise Control operates intwo modes (i) Velocity Control mode, (ii) Distance Controlmode. ACC acts like a conventional Cruise Controller(CC) under velocity control mode. In the case of thedistance control mode, the speed of the host vehicle isreduced according to the surrounding environment tomaintain the safe distance between the leading vehicle andthe host vehicle. 25 rules have been used in Fuzzy logicController (FLC) with the knowledge base of the system.The inputs of the FLC are distance error and the speederror. The host vehicle adapts to the lead vehicle speedchanges and tries to maintain a proper distance betweenthem. The performance of the FLC based ACC isimproved by Genetic Algorithm to tune the fuzzy rulebase. Genetic Programming is used to select the best ruleout of the 25 for a corresponding input. The result showeda better improvement over the Fuzzy Controlled System.

Keywords - Adaptive Cruise Control; Genetic Algorithm; FuzzyLogic Control
I.

I
NTRODUCTION
Researches on Intelligent Vehicle (IV) Systems have beendevoted to solve problem such as driver burden reduction,accident prevention, traffic flow smoothing. Mentally, drivingis a highly demanding activity - a driver must maintain a highlevel of concentration for long periods and be ready to reactwithin a split second to changing situations. In particular,drivers must constantly assess the distance and relative speedof vehicles in front and adjust their own speed accordingly. ACruise Control (CC) system has been developed to assist thedriver for driving in long distance on highway when there isno vehicle present before the host vehicle. Adaptive CruiseControl (ACC) supports the driver in longitudinal control of vehicles by operating in two modes of control, (i.e.,) VelocityControl mode and Distance Control mode. In Velocity Controlmode ACC maintains the vehicle’s preset velocity set by thedriver. The stability of the ACC system is disturbed when alead vehicle or an obstacle is present in the way of the vehiclefitted with ACC. Such a drawback is rectified by switchingover to Distance Control. In this mode ACC automaticallyadjusts the host vehicle velocity in order to maintain a safedistance between the two vehicles. These systems arecharacterized by a moderately low level of throttle and brakeauthority. The limitation of conventional ACC systems is thatthey do not manage speeds under 30 km/h and, consequently,are not useful in traffic jams or urban driving, situation. Atcongested traffic, the ACC system becomes less useful. Now,ACC systems are made capable of maintaining controlledvehicle’s position relative to the leading vehicle even incongested traffic by using stop and go features whilemaintaining a safe distance between leading and followingvehicles autonomously. The conventional CC system operatesonly in one mode of control i.e., velocity control mode, on theother hand, ACC has two both velocity and distance controlmodes. In this paper the different inter vehicle distances andspeed levels have been considered. Simulation results obtainedfrom ACC system using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) andgenetically tuned FLC have been compared to validate theobjective of this paper.II.

FLC

BASED

ACCFuzzy Logic Controller is designed on the basis of fuzzylogic, which does not require any mathematical models butmainly depends on the experience. Fuzziness describes eventambiguity. It measures the degree to which an event occurs,not whether it occurs. Fuzzy theory is a powerful tool in the

exploration of complex problems because of its ability todetermine outputs for a given set of inputs without using aconventional, mathematical model. Fuzzy theory becomeseasily understood because it can be made to resemble a highlevel language instead of a mathematical language. To

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
describe a universe of discourse, fuzzy sets with names suchas “hot” and “cold” are used to create a membership function.By determining the degree of membership of an input in thefuzzy sets of this membership function, the role of membership functions play in decoding the linguisticterminology to the values a computer can use [7]. Fuzzy Logiccontroller is represented by a set of rules represented in theform of if-then rules [3]. The fuzzy rule consists of antecedentand consequent. Antecedent is a condition in its applicationdomain and consequent is a control action for the systemunder control. The fuzzy inference engine employs the fuzzyknowledge base to simulate human decision making and inferfuzzy control actions. Finally, the defuzzifier module is usedto translate the processed fuzzy data into the crisp data suitedto real world applications [4].
A.

Frame work of the Fuzzy Logic Controller
Figure. 1. Framework of Fuzzy Logic Controller
Fuzzify the inputs according to the input membershipFunctions. The rule strength is found out by combining thefuzzified inputs according to the Fuzzy rules. Theconsequence of the rule is found out by combining the rulestrength and the output membership function. The Fuzzifiedoutput has to defuzzified to convert the Fuzzified value to acrisp value. Defuzzifying method is the weighted average of all rule outputs[8].
B.

Inputs of the Fuzzy logic controller
Two input and a single output Fuzzy logic controller isused. The inputs of the Fuzzy Logic Controller are distanceerror (Xerror) and the speed error (Serror). The distance error(1) is the difference between the actual distance (Inter-vehicleDistance, Xactual) and the desired distance (Xdesired). Threedifferent distance levels are considered for simulation purposewhich is shown in Fig.2. (Fig 2 (a) – distance varies from 7 to13.3m, Fig 2 (b) – distance varies from 5 to 6m, Fig 2 (c) –distance varies from 2 to 4.4m) The actual distance can bemeasured using an ultrasonic sensor. The desired distance is thedistance which required to be maintained between the vehiclesto avoid the rear end collision. Desired distance changes indirect proportion to the vehicle speed.
(a)(b)(c)Figure 2. Actual Distance
The Speed error is obtained by the differencebetween the leading vehicle speed (Slead) and thehost vehicle speed (Shost) according to (4).
The velocity of the leading vehicle is found out by sum of thehost vehicle and the distance error according to (5).

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
The output of the Fuzzy Controller determines acceleration orbraking which drives the vehicle.
C.

Fuzzification of Inputs
Mamdani Fuzzy inference method is used in this case. TheFuzzy sets are represented by using the linguistic variablesnamely (i) Negative Medium (NM) (ii) Negative Small (NS)(iii) Zero Error (iv) Positive Small (v) Positive Medium [10].Xerror and Serror are the two inputs for the Fuzzy LogicController. The output is the firing on ACC which gives thedesired braking and acceleration. The input and output of theFuzzy Logic Controller are represented triangular membershipfunctions. The output is the acceleration or Braking commandaccording to the current input. The positive side of the outputrepresents the acceleration command and the negative siderepresents the braking command. 25 rules have been generatedwith the knowledge base of the system. Table 1 gives therelation between the input and the fuzzy output
TABLE.1. FUZZY RULE BASE
This system is modeled based upon the equations. The valueof X desired depends on the Speed of the host vehicle. Thedesired distance varies proportional to the speed of the hostvehicle. The value of X error is negative when X actual is lessthan the X desired, therefore the Speed of the host vehicle hasto be reduced. The value of X error is positive when the Xactual is greater than the X desired; therefore the speed of thehost vehicle has to be increased. Thus this controls the outputof the ACC vehicle. The host vehicle is adapted to the leadvehicle with minimum error.
D.

Output of FLC Based ACC
(a)(b)(c)Figure 3. Output of the fuzzy controlled ACC for the given conditions
The host vehicle is getting adapted to the lead vehicle forvarious inter-vehicle distances considered and shown in Fig 2.For the third case the level of adaptation was very poor.III.

GA

B
ASED
F
UZZY
C
ONTROLLED
ACCGenetic Algorithms are computing algorithms to solveoptimization problems by making use of evolutionaryprinciples as known from biology. Evolution is a process thatoperates on chromosomes (organic devices for encoding thestructure of living beings) rather than on living beings. Theprocesses of natural selection cause those chromosomes thatencode successful structures to reproduce more often thanthose that do not. Recombination processes create differentchromosomes in offspring by combining genes from thechromosomes of the two parents. Mutation may cause the
Speed error
Distance error
NM NS ZE PS PMNM
PM PM PM PS PS
NS
PS PM PS ZE PS
ZE
PM ZE ZE NS NM
PS
PM PS NS NS NS
PM
PS NS NS NM NS