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A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks

A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks

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Published by ijcsis
The growing demand for last mile broadband access is resulted from the increased growth of speedy multimedia services for mobile, residential and little business customers. Technologies based on 802.16 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) ensures to offer high data rates in long distance and afford multimedia services and are expected to act as key issue for high speed broadband services. The technique for building multi-hop mesh is provided by IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard. This can be act as high speed wide-area wireless network and can afford better wireless coverage up to 5 miles with Line of Sight (LOS) transmission inside the bandwidth of around 70 Mbps. As the wireless environment varies unexpectedly, routing in wireless network is challenging work. There are several demands for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX routing like delay, long transmission scheduling, increasingly stringent Quality of Service (QoS) support, load balance and fairness restrictions. The aim of this survey is to analyze some of the routing protocols proposed by various authors for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks.
The growing demand for last mile broadband access is resulted from the increased growth of speedy multimedia services for mobile, residential and little business customers. Technologies based on 802.16 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) ensures to offer high data rates in long distance and afford multimedia services and are expected to act as key issue for high speed broadband services. The technique for building multi-hop mesh is provided by IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard. This can be act as high speed wide-area wireless network and can afford better wireless coverage up to 5 miles with Line of Sight (LOS) transmission inside the bandwidth of around 70 Mbps. As the wireless environment varies unexpectedly, routing in wireless network is challenging work. There are several demands for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX routing like delay, long transmission scheduling, increasingly stringent Quality of Service (QoS) support, load balance and fairness restrictions. The aim of this survey is to analyze some of the routing protocols proposed by various authors for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks.

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Abstract---
The growing demand for last mile broadband access is resultedfrom the increased growth of speedy multimedia services for mobile,residential and little business customers. Technologies based on 802.16WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) ensures to offerhigh data rates in long distance and afford multimedia services and areexpected to act as key issue for high speed broadband services. The techniquefor building multi-hop mesh is provided by IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard.This can be act as high speed wide-area wireless network and can afford betterwireless coverage up to 5 miles with Line of Sight (LOS) transmission insidethe bandwidth of around 70 Mbps. As the wireless environment variesunexpectedly, routing in wireless network is challenging work. There areseveral demands for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX routing like delay, longtransmission scheduling, increasingly stringent Quality of Service (QoS)support, load balance and fairness restrictions. The aim of this survey is toanalyze some of the routing protocols proposed by various authors for IEEE802.16 WiMAX networks.
 
Keywords
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IEEE 802.16, Routing Algorithm, Wireless mesh networks,Scheduling.
 I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
N present telecommunications, networking and services arevarying in a rapid way to support next generation Internetuser environment. Wireless networks will play a significantrole in supporting next generation Internet. Wirelessbroadband networks are being increasingly deployed and usedin the last mile for extending or enhancing Internetconnectivity for fixed and/or mobile clients situated on theedge of the wired network.WiMAX is considered as an important wireless technologyand involved in several probable applications in case of highdata rate, greater network coverage, strong QoS capabilitiesand cheap network deployment and maintenance costs. This isestimated to support many business applications which requirethe support of quality of service. WiMAX can be modified toapply in different modes such as point-to-multipoint (PMP) orMesh mode based on applications and network investment.The vast increasing user demand for faster connection in Weband VoIP services has lead to the progress of new broadbandaccess technologies in the current days. In the year 2004, aIEEE 802.16 standard which is generally called as WiMAX isfinalized in order to provide last-mile fixed wirelessbroadband access in the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)with performance as good as to conventional cable, DSL or T1networks.The frequency required for the operation of IEEE 802.16 incase of Line-of-Sight (LOS) is 10 to 66 GHz, whereas, for nonLine-of-Sight, operating frequency is 2 to 11 GHz. Orthogonalfrequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is utilized in thephysical layer in order to support adaptive modulation andcoding. Based on the condition of channel, this can afford adata rate up to 134 Mbps per base station for each channel of 28 MHz. An IEEE 802.16 network contains Base Station (BS)and multiple Subscriber Stations (SSs). The Base Station actsas a gateway for the Subscriber Stations to the externalnetwork, and each SS acts as an access point that aggregatestraffic from end users in a several geographical area.Most of the nodes are either stable or minimally movable incase of community wireless networks. This lead to the focusof routing protocol in improving the capacity of network orthe performance of individual transfer, rather than focusing onmovement of nodes of decreasing the power consumption.The major problem faced by such network lies in the loss inthe full capacity because of interference among multipleconcurrent transmissions. There are also certain basicdifficulties in routing in wireless networks. Routing model hasto support in both short time scales and long time scales. Abetter wireless routing protocol has to support equally forstability in long term route and accomplish opportunisticperformance for shore term route. The robustness against awide spectrum of soft and hard failures should be attained bythe Wireless routing which ranging from transient channeloutages, links with intermediate loss rates, from severalchannel disconnections, nodes under denial-of-service (DOS)attacks, and failing nodes. So challenges in routing protocolare to deal with both these problems. At the same time, itshould support large node population by modifying itself tonecessary extent. The random routing is provided in IEEE802.16 protocol in which parents are selected in random withthe help of SSs while building the tree. This paper presentssome of the routing techniques proposed by different authorfor 802.16 WiMAX networks.
A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for802.16 WiMAX Networks
N.Ananthi, Dr.J.Raja,Easwari Engineering College, Anna University,Chennai. Trichy.Email:nandhura@gmail.com Email:rajajanakiraman@gmail.com
I
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011189 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
II.
 
L
ITERATURE
S
URVEY
 Konark [1] proposed a routing and scheduling algorithm of IEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network for radio resourcemanagement (RRM). The resource allocation concerned inIEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network is investigated by theauthor. The multipath routing is the major issue consideredhere in order to utilize the resources of wireless radioefficiently and hence providing spectral efficiency. The maincharacteristic of scheduling technique is to permit the dynamicdispatching of data blocks. This is based on the condition of present buffer and the condition of route without knowing thedemand in traffic. Hence it is helpful for heterogeneous trafficload which is supported by IEEE 802.16 Network which is astrong candidate in Wireless Networking characteristics. Theload demand information of application layer and theinterference information of PHY layer are utilized by routingprotocol. The routing protocol is designed in order that theleast mean path interference should be provided from themultiple hops. The scheduling technique is designed in orderthat it should find the maximum number of concurrenttransmission which satisfies the Signal- to- interference plusnoise ratio (SINR) limitations. In both the techniques, theiterative allocation continues until there is no unallocatedcapacity request.Kaarthick 
et al.,
[2] presented an adaptive routing algorithm tosupport distributed services in WiMAX. For stationary andmobile hosts, IEEE 802.16 is considered as a cost effectivesolution to Internet broadband access in the recent years. TheWiMAX network can be enabled with distributed services inorder to support several customers in the WiMAX network efficiently. An adaptive routing technique is proposed by theauthor for calculating the bandwidth guaranteed paths with thehelp of disciplined flooding and proxy setup to providedistributed services in IEEE 802.16e. The performance of thealgorithm can be computed with the help of AODV techniquewhich act as a benchmark algorithm. The evaluation of thistechnique is based on the following four metrics:
 
Route discovery time
 
Delay
 
Total errors sent
 
Total packets droppedSusana
et al.,
[3] put forth hybrid WiFi-WiMAX network routing protocol. The growth of multihop routing protocols issupported by the proliferation of Wireless Local AreaNetworks (WLANs). In addition, the requirement to coverlarger areas has led to the development of fresh standards forWireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs). A newrouting technique is developed by the author in order tocombine WLANs and WMANs which will results in betterinterconnectivity.Kuran
et al.,
[4] given a Cross-Layer Routing-Scheduling inIEEE 802.16 mesh networks. For the Internet Protocol-basedfourth-generation (4G) wireless communication systems,broadband wireless access networks will be a fundamentalcomponent that is a part convergent and pervasive networkingarchitecture. One of the major active techniques for broadbandwireless access is IEEE 802.16 Mobile WiMAX. There areseveral challenges for the mixing of WiMAX and next-generation broadband networks such as diverse operationalenvironment, increasingly stringent QoS support,power/coverage limitations and capacity boundaries. Thepossible solution to this problem is the mesh operation modeof IEEE 802.16. A cross-layer routing-scheduling scheme inIEEE 802.16 mesh networks is proposed by the author in thiswork. This technique uses the distributed and centralizedscheduling capabilities of IEEE 802.16 link layer in meshmode and routing in network layer together in order toperform the operation optimally. This technique is based onthe techniques of IEEE 802.16 protocol. The experimentalresults pointed out that this method can considerably progressthe improvement in the network performance particularly incase of a congestion in the Internet part of the traffic at thecost of a minor burden on the intranet traffic in the form of aslight increase in the end-to-end delay.Shiying [5] proposed a joint admission control and routing inIEEE 802.16-based mesh networks. In WiMAX-basedmetropolitan area mesh networks, the quality of service (QoS)provisioning techniques are considered in this paper. Theconnection admission control (CAC) and routing concern inthe design and operation of wireless multihop mesh networksis studied by the author and proposes a joint connectionadmission control and the routing technique for variousservice classes with the intention to maximize the overallrevenue from all agreed connections. Connection-level QoSlimitations such as handoff connection dropping probabilitycan be fixed within a threshold. By providing different rewardrates, multiple service classes can be arranged according totheir importance. Then the optimal CAC policies can beobtained by applying the optimization techniques. Theoptimality criterion is considered as the long-run averagereward. The proposed technique can maximum revenueobtainable by the system under QoS constraints and the authorshows that the optimal joint policy is a randomized policy.This indicates that the connections are admitted to the systemwith some prospect when the system is in definite states.Wan [6] given an interference aware routing and scheduling inWiMAX Backhaul Networks with Smart Antennas. A smartadaptive antenna can be used for intended communicationsand interference suppression as it can offer multiple Degreesof Freedom (DOFs). Network throughput can be appreciably
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011190 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
enhanced by more efficient spatial reuse by combining smartantennas in a WiMAX system. Routing and scheduling inWiMAX backhaul networks along with smart antennas areconsidered by the author. Full concern for interference impactand DOF availability is offered by the proposed method whichproperly defines the Interference-aware Tree ConstructionProblem (ITCP) for routing. Next, for resolving the problemsin polynomial time the technique is proposed. In case of scheduling¸ the proposed technique initially provides apolynomial-time, optimal technique for a particular case inwhich the number of DOFs in every node is sufficient toneglect all potential secondary interference. Finally, forscheduling problem effective heuristic algorithm is proposedby the author.Jin
et al.,
[7] put forth a routing and packet scheduling forthroughput maximization in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks.The difficulty of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology isconsidered in this paper and the results are provided. At first,the simplified linear network is taken in account with onlyuplink traffic and presents a optimal scheduling technique.The author initiates an analytical result on the length of theschedule. The difficulty in routing and packet scheduling ingeneral topology is then taken into account by the author andprovides its NP completeness. The proposed method alsooffers an ILP formation for this difficulty. The authorproposes techniques that find routes and schedules of packettransmissions in general mesh topologies depend on theoptimal algorithm for linear networks.A Routing Metric and Algorithm for IEEE 802.16 MeshNetworks is provided by Ntsibane [8]. The high speed datarates over large distances and multimedia services arefacilitated by the technologies that are based on 802.16. Also,this technology is likely to provide the high speed broadbanddelivery even beyond the current 3rd Generation wirelesstechnologies. The mesh mode which utilizes this technique hasthe capability of escalating the coverage well beyond the citiesand into the rural areas that are presently not served byconventional techniques. The author considers the potential of the mesh mode and provided a routing technique which isappropriate for coordinated distributed scheduling.Nazari
et al.,
[9] proposed case for mobility- and traffic-drivenrouting algorithms for wireless access mesh networks. Herethe author has presented a new technique in order to developrouting algorithms in which the author idea attempt tounderstand the characteristics of network (i.e. network connectivity, mobility and rate of modification of thetopology) and the patterns of expected traffic for a specificmobile scenario before the start of the design algorithm, whichdeals with the optimization of routing performance. This papermainly applied to approach Triton, a proposed 802.16-based(WiMAX) maritime wireless access mesh network. Mostprobably the trace-based analysis out shows that, while thestationary nodes are most commonly selected in the routeselection, then the rate of change between the routes to thegateway nodes is seems to get reduced by 23.3% and theaverage time taken for which routes between a node and agateway remains valid is gradually spikes to 31%. The authordescribed that it is quite important to take the expected trafficpatterns for designing the routing pattern for a specific system.The network topology will not affect the expected traffic, sothat reduction of overheads is done.Ben-Jye Chang
et al.,
[10] discussed about Adaptivecompetitive on-line routing algorithm for IEEE 802.16jWiMAX multi-hop relay networks. IEEE 802.16j is a relaybased approach which is based on the IEEE 802.16e standard,and WiMAX has proposed this standard. This is mainly forwidening the service area of Base Stations (BSs) and toimprove the signal strength quality i.e., received signalstrength (RSS) quality. The main advantages of IEEE 802.16jare the expense for building IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networksis comparably low and much compatible with existingWiMAX standards. Diverse features on mobility and relayrange deliberately reveals that the, Relay Station (RS) can begrouped up into three types: Fixed RS (FRS), Nomadic RS(NRS) and Mobile RS (MRS). There are different types of RSs in relay-based WiMAX network. The routing path amonga Mobile Station (MS) and the MR-BS are the two importantfactors to construct efficient relay-based WiMAX and find outan optimal solution. The author thus propose an IEEE 802.16j-conformed relay-based adaptive competitive on-line routingapproach, in which the selection of a multihop optimal path isdone in terms of link bandwidth, path length and channelcondition. This proposed paper significantly outperforms otherapproaches in Fractional Reward Loss (FRL), which isdeliberately shown in numerical results.Al-Hemyari
et al.,
[11] stated a Centralized scheduling,routing tree in WiMAX mesh networks. IEEE 802.16 cameinto picture since there is a lot of demand for high speedinternet access service in last few years. So IEEE 802.16working group have provided a broadband wireless access(BWA) for developing the worldwide interoperability formicrowave access. (WiMAX) standard is used for wirelessmetropolitan area networks (MANs) in order to provide abroadband wireless over a miles, easy deployment, and highspeed data rate for large spanning area. Single channel singletransceiver scheme in WiMAX mesh network is implementedhere for obtaining an efficient routing and collision freecentralized scheduling (CS) algorithms, which is used tointroduce the cross layer concept between the network layer
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011191 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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