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Rapid Prototyping Model Coordinate Estimation Using Radial Basis Function

Rapid Prototyping Model Coordinate Estimation Using Radial Basis Function

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Published by ijcsis
This paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Function (RBF). The training is done with many sample objects. It is expected to have minimum distance traveled by the Rapid prototyping machine when the software follows the geometric coordinates produced by the RBF.
This paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Function (RBF). The training is done with many sample objects. It is expected to have minimum distance traveled by the Rapid prototyping machine when the software follows the geometric coordinates produced by the RBF.

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Published by: ijcsis on Mar 08, 2011
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07/19/2013

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Rapid Prototyping Model CoordinateEstimation Using Radial Basis Function
.
1
Anantmurty S. Shastry and
2
S.Purushothaman
1
Anantmurty S. Shastry
Research Scholar,Department of Mechanical EngineeringVinayaka Missions University,Salem, Tamilnadu, IndiaE-Mail:ansshastry@yahoo.co.in 
2
 
Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal
,Sun College of Engineering and Technology,Sun Nagar, Erachakulum,Kanyakumari district-629902,IndiaE-Mail: dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com
ABSTRACT:
This paper discusses the methods forgetting proper geometric coordinates of a sampleobject that has to be rapid prototyped. Thecoordinates of the objects is obtained by usingRadial Basis Function (RBF). The training is donewith many sample objects. It is expected to haveminimum distance traveled by the Rapidprototyping machine when the software follows thegeometric coordinates produced by the RBF.
Key words: Rapid Prototyping, Artificial Neural Network, Radial Basis Function.
1.
 
INTRODUCTIONRapid prototyping (RP) refers to a variety of specialized equipment, software and materialscapable of using 3D computer aided design(CAD)[5]
 
data input to directly fabricategeometrically complex objects. RP technologieshave emerged as a key element of time with their ability to shorten the product design anddevelopment process[2]. This highly innovativeand cost efficient technology has foundapplications in automotive, aerospace andmedical equipment manufacturing, replacing thecommonly used slower and less accurate manualmethods of fabricating prototypes[4]. Withadvances in established technologies, materialsand the introduction of new methods, selectingthe right RP machine has become much moredifficult and is one of the most importantdecisions to be made when employing any RPtechnology. This is vital in minimizing builttime, cost and achieving optimal accuracy. Whenmaking this decision, the designers and RPmachine operators should consider a number of different processes and specific constraints. Thismay be a difficult and time consuming task.The RP material flows through anorifice and comes out in the form of drops. Thesize of the drop is depending upon the speed of the wire comes out and solidification of material.For example, 1 mm size of drop is placed in 1mm size cube cavity to get the same size of cubeafter solidification in fraction of seconds[1]. Thesides of the cube should be flat in all respects. Toachieve this focus has been made on a methodwhich can inform that how to make the abovethings with critical path method (CPM)[6]. Someproducts have been chosen with their applications, particularly in medical area. Byconsidering all the parameters in developing anykind of object is being able to produce in shorter time without any difficulty[3].2.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1
 
Materials
A schematic flow of the proposed work ispresented in Figure 1.
Rapid Model:
It is the end product that has tobe rapid prototyped.
Coordinates:
There are various Coordinatesmeasured from the RP model either throughCMM/Reverse Engineering/existing drawingdetails.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011199 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Sizes:
The length, width /thickness,breadth/height and other profiles are calculatedfrom the coordinates.
RBF:
Coordinates and sizes of sample RPmodels are used as data for training the RBFneural network to obtain final weights that willbe used for testing.
Obtain format to meet RP M/c:
The outputsof RBF are used as inputs for RP M/c converter where RP model will be developed
.Fig.1 Schematic flow
2.2
 
Methods
The concept of distance measure isused to associate the input and output patternvalues. Radial Basis Functions is capable of producing approximations to an unknownfunction ‘f’ from a set of input data abscissa. Theapproximation is produced by passing an inputpoint through a set of basis functions, each of which contains one of the RBF centres,multiplying the result of each function by acoefficient and then summing them linearly.For each function ‘t’, theapproximation to this function is essentiallystored in the coefficients and centres of the RBF.These parameters are in no way unique, since for each function ‘t’ being approximated, manycombinations of parameter values exist. RBFshave the following mathematical representation:
=
+=
1N0iiio
||)x
Φ
(||ccF(x)
 (1)
 
wherec is a vector containing thecoefficients of the RBF,R is a vector containing thecentres of the RBF, and
φ
is the basis function or activation function of the network.
ImplementationStep 1:
Apply Radial Basis Function.
 
No. of Input = 15No. of Patterns = 6No. of Centre = 6Calculate RBF asRBF = exp (-X)Calculate Matrix asG = RBFA = G
T
* GCalculateB = A
-1
CalculateE = B * G
T
Step 2:
Calculate the Final Weight.F = E * D
Step 3:
Store the Final Weights in a File.3.
 
EXPERIMENT SET UPSix RP models have been considered asexamples for testing the RBF network. Each RPmodel has been labeled with Cartesiancoordinates. The models have been developedusing CAD software. The models are definedwith definite number of points. The distancebetween points are calculated internally by theprogram. During training RBF, only the pointcoordinates are input in the input layer. Thenumber of centers used is 6. The targets used is15.Table 1 presents 6 sample RP models under consideration. Table 2 presents number of pointsconsidered in this analysis for each RP model.Table 3a-c presents actual coordinates in mm for each point. The total number of pointsconsidered is 15 in each object.
Rp
 
Model
 
Co
ordinatesDefine
 
sizes
 
Input
 
to
 
RBF
 
Obtain
 
format
 
to
 
meet
 
RP
 
M/c
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011200 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Table 1 Sample RP modelsTable 2 Number of points in the RP model
RP Number of points
1 82 103 124 155 46 5
Table 3a Cartesian coordinate
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
x y z x y z x y z x y z x y z
1 0 0 0 50 0 0 50 50 0 0 50 50 0 0 5029.08 0 0 38.47 0 0 47.55 27.95 0 23.77 45.22 0 0 27.95 03 12.5 0 0 37.5 0 0 50 21.65 0 37.5 43.30 0 12.5 43.30 04 13.52 0 0 32.66 0 0 46.19 13.52 0 46.19 32.66 0 32.66 46.19 050 0 0 25 0 0 12.5 21.65 0 12.5 7.22 50x x x6 0 0 0 25 0 0 25 25 0 0 25 0 12.5 7.22 50
4
 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe coordinates of the RP models are learntby RBF. Table 4 presents the outputs of RBF for all the 6 RP models for the points p1, p2. Similar close outputs are obtained for points p3, p4, p5,p6, p7, p8, p9, p10, p11, p12, p13, p14, p15
Conclusion:
This work has made an attemptto train RBF with RP model coordinates. Duringthe actual implementation, the RP modelcoordinates are given as inputs to the RBF toobtain the actual coordinates that helps in RPmodeling.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011201 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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