methods we used, both to teach the Navajo to make films and tocollect our data on the filmmaking process; and third, we describebriefly some of the films and relate some of our observations andanalyses concerning them.Malinowski
wrote many years ago that: “The final goal,of which an Ethnographer should never lose sight.
s, briefly,to grasp the natives’ point of view, his relation to life, to realize
world.” This clearly formulated objective hascreated
methodological problem that has been partially solvedby collecting life histories with nondirective techniques. Thesematerials not only reveal things about the dynamics of personal-ity but also help us to understand how the individual relateshimself to the outer world through the terms provided by hisparticular language. Myths and linguistic texts have likewisegiven us extensive verbal records for analysis.Another-nonverbal’-approach that has helped to bring an-thropology part
the way toward Malinowski’s goal has beenthe endeavor to understand the way people use visual modes ofexpression and communication to orient themselves, and to ex-press their relationship with their environment. We have some.
has been used to refer
communicative that falls outside the strict definitions
languageproposed by professional linguists. Thus
has been used to describe suchdiverse acts as handwriting, painting, movies, and graphics; gesture, facial expres-sion, and hand-body movement; music in its written form; as well as such lan-guage connected acts as pauses, shouting and whispering, and speech rhythm.Many of the above activities are directly connected by correlation
transforma-tion to speech and are more properly referred to as metaverbal. What we shallbe discussing are those acts that are not commonly believed
language connected, and which might be more accurately described by suchwords as
picture, image, pictorial
We will use the term
when we wish
make a point of separating whatwe are talking about from speech
spoken language in general, but it is impor-tant
understand that we do not want
that nonverbalevents are not language related. That, in fact,
one of the important questionsdiscussed in this book. At all other times we will refer to the picture, image,visual, movie,
film, whichever seems
connote the event most accurately.