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USSBS Report 61, Military Analysis Division, Air Forces Allied With the United States in the War Against Japan

USSBS Report 61, Military Analysis Division, Air Forces Allied With the United States in the War Against Japan

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USSBS Report 61, Military Analysis Division, Air Forces Allied With the United States in the War Against Japan
USSBS Report 61, Military Analysis Division, Air Forces Allied With the United States in the War Against Japan

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Published by: JapanAirRaids on Mar 08, 2011
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08/04/2013

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/I
THE UNITED STAT
ES
STRATEGICB
OM
BI
NG
SU
RVEY
&
" ' ~ 
'
, .
~
L
"it
~ j
UABJN£
C.B
PS
S
1.0"",8
AIR
FORCES
ALLIED WITH
THE
UNIT
ED STATES
,
IN
THE
WAR
AGAINST
JAPAN
Military AnalysisDivi,sion February 1947
G
I
..
 
T h i ~ 
report
'II'U
"-rillen primllrilyforthe
u<w
of
the United
States
Stratel'i(
Bambin,
SUTI·e)'
in
the preplITlltion of
further
I " c p o r t . ~
of
H
m o r ~ 
tomprehens;\"e
~ t u r e . 
An)'
conclusion:!
or
opinions
e x p ' · e . . q ~ 
in
thi.'!report
mun
be
ronftidered
all
limited to the
~ p e c : : i l i c 
material
covered
and
U
wbjtct
to
further intt'rpreUition
in
the light
oflurther
studies con
ducted
by
the
Surwy.
n
FOREWORD
The
UnitedSUlles
Strlltegic
BombingSur\'eYwas
established
by
the Secretary of
War
on 3November
1944,
I)UrSullnt
to
II
directive
fromthelale
P,'esident
Roosevelt,
Its miuion
""liS
toconduct
an impartial and
ex
pertstudyof the
effect.!l
of our
lIerilll
attack
on
Germany. to
be
IIlIcd
in connection
with
air
IIttliCks on
Japauand
to
elltablish a bllsill
for
evalnatingthe
illl-
portanee
and
potentialitie
s
of
air
power
as
an
inst
rum
ent of
mililllry
strategy
f
or
planning
the futUl·e development
of
theUnited
Stales
armed
forces
aud
for
determining future
eco-
nomic policieswith
respect to
the
nationllldefense.A
summaryreportand
!!Orne
200
supllOrting repol'ls
containingthe
findings
of
th
e
Survey
in
Cennlln
yha"ebeen published, On
15
Augullt
1945,
Pl"ClIident
Truman
requested
that
the
Survey
conduct asi
milar
study
ofthe
effects
of
1111
types
of
lIirattllckinthe wllr
against
JalJan,lIubmitt
ing
'"{'
l
lO
rb
in
dupJiCflteto
the
Secr
eta
ry
of
Waraud
to
the
Secre
tar
y
of
the
NHvy.
The
o!llcers
of
the
Survey during
ill'!
,JII]la
nese
phase
were:Franklin
l)'Olier
, Cll(lirmall.PaulH.Nitze,
Henry
C,
Alexllnder,
ViC#'
Chltirmtll
.•
Harry
L,
Bowman,
J.
Kenneth
Galbraith,
I{enllis Likert,
Frank
A.
McNamee.
Jr.,Fred
Searls,
Jr
"Monroe E.
Spaght,
I)r. Lewis
R.
Thompson,Theodore P.
Wright,
D
i r e c l f ) ~ ~ , 
Walter
Wild!:!,
Ser,'ctary,
civili!!nll. 350 oflicer
8.
lind500
e n l i ~ t e d 
mell.ThemilitArY
segment
of
theorganiza
tion
was
drllwn from
the Army
to
theextent
of
60
per_cent,nnd
from
theNavy
to
the extent
of
40
percellt. Both the
Army
and
the Navy
gave theSurvey
all
I)Osgible
I I s ~ i s t a n c e
in
furnishing
men,
SU
I'plies,
trnnsport.
and information.
The
Survey operated
from
headquarte
rsestablilthedinTokyo
enrly
in
September
1945,
with
subhea
dquarter
s
in
Nagoya,
Osaka,
Hil"Oll.hima,
and
NagllSllki,lindwith mobileteams ollCratingin othe,'pari.!!
of Japan, the
island!!
ofthe
Pacific,
and the
A
siatic
mainland.
It
11'11:1
possible
to
reconst
ruct
much
of war-
time
JHIJaneSe lIIilitary
planningand
execution,engllgementbye
ngag
ement.
and
campaign
bycamllllign.
and to secure
rea
llOn
ablyaccurate
~ t a t i s t i e s 
on
Jupan's
economy
and
war
produc
tion.
1)ll1nt
byplllnt.
and
industry
by
industry,
In IIddition.
studies
were conducted on
Japan'
sover
_all
st
rategi
cplan
>t
andthe background
of
herentry
into
the
WHr,
the internal
discussion
>t
lind
n e g o t i a t i o n ~
lelldingto
her
acce
ptan
ce
of
unconditional
surre
nder,the
course
of
health
and
morale among
the
c
i"ilian
population, the
ef
fec
til
'eness
of
the
Jllpane
l!e
civiliandefen
se
orglfnilllltion. lind
the
e,recti!
of
the IItomicbombs. Separllte reporti! will
be
iuued
covering
each
phase
of
the
st
udy.
Th
eSUl'veyi
nt
errogllted more
than
700
Ja
p
allelIC
militar
y,
governmenl, and
industrial
ofli
cia
la,
It
alllO
recovered lind
translated
mllnydocuments which not ouly have beenuseful
10
theSurvey.
but
also willfu"nish
data
vllluabh:foro
th
er
I I l u
d i e ~ . 
Arrangementil
have beeumade to t!lrnol'er
the
Sun·ey'/! files
to
the
Cen
tral
Intelligence
GI·OUp,
through
which
they
wili
hI!
IlVllil/lbll!fol'
further
eXllminlltionlindThe
Survey',
complement prol·ided
for
300
d i ~ l r i b u t i o n , 
'"
 
TABLE
Of
coNTENTS
..........
.
........
.
.....
.
........
II
OrIaAnoN
I
a.
TIP
RoYAL
AU
na.uJA
N
AIR
FORCB
...••.
Ill.
OraATI
ONI
OF
THI
RoUL
NEWZ&\I..AND
Am
FORCE
.•..
.
..
IV.
()pa.a.TlONI
or
THI
ROYAL
NBTHBlU.A.N
D8
EAsT
INDI
ES
AIR
Foaca
.................
...
...
..
.
..
....
....
.......
.
"
-
I
I
8
II
I.
I
nuod
ucrion
The
Anny
AirCorps
and
the
Naval
AirArmofthe
United
States
received
active
a8!listancefrom
the
air
forces
ot
!leven
nations
indefeating
Japan.
One
of
the!le,
the
Chinese
Air
Force,
had
been in combat
with the
Jap
anesesince
the
hMarcoPoloBridge Incident"
of
7
July
1937
and
its
"American
Volunteer Group"formed
the
nucleus
of
the
American
air
forCe!!
in
China;the Briti
sh Royal
Air
Force,
thc
Royal
Australian Air
Force,
the
Ro
yalNewZealand
Air
Force3,
the
RoyalNetherlands
East
l n d i e ~ 
Air
Forees
and the
Phi1!ppineCommonwealth Ail' Forceall joined
the
war
within
24
hours
after
the
bombing
ofPearl
Harbor;
andtheM(.'xiean
Air
Forceengaged
in
combat
fly-
ing
against
thc
Jall!lnesein
the
Philipl)inesfrom
4
June
1946
through
the
Japan
e!!C
surrender
on
14
August
1946.All
of
the
se
air
forces, with the exception
ofthe
BI'itishRoyal Ail' Force, dep'ended almost
entirely
on
the
aircraft
industry of
theUnited
States for combat type
planes.
TheAustra
liangovernment, however,
was
able to
manufacture
trainers
and light
attack aircraft
("\
\
'ir
r
aways")
in
increasing numbers
as
thewar
I)rogres.;ed.
together"'ith
spare
partsfor
Ameriean
tYllCS.
Great
Britain
also
suppl
ied
>!Orne
Illanesto
the
Itoyal
Australian
and Royal
New
Zealand
Air
Force
s.Both
of
these
air
forces
at
the
start
of
the
war
with
Japanwen'
littlemore
than
training
orl1anizations
for
providing
piloU!
andairerews for the war with
Germany.Theysuccessfully undertook
expan.
sion
programsof
considerllble
SCOIJe
and
gave
important
nssistance to
the
Alliedforces inthePacific.
I
~ x c e p l 
fora few obsolete
airerllft
in
rear
" r e a ~ 
and
the
p l a n e ~ 
ofthe "Ameri
Clm
"ohm
teer
GroUI),"
the
Chin(.'scAil'
~ ~ o r c c 
existl'{]only
on
P
III)(,I'
at
thetimeof
Pearl
l1arl)O
I
·.
La
ter, considerable
numbersof
Chinescpllotllwcre
trnined
lit /lyingschoolsin
the
Unite<l
States. Pilotll alsowel'e trllined
in
the Unit
e<l
Stalesfor
the Netherlands
East
Indies AirForces. Theseforceshadbeen wiped
out
en
tirely
in
theearly
montha
of
thewar.
b ~ t 
before
the
JallllneselIurrender,
they
llgain
weretaking
active roleJlin
the
fighting. Pilots
of
the PhilippineCommonwealth
Air
Foree
took
part
inthedefen!le
ofthe
Philippine"
and
!!Orne
whoescaped l!ef\'ed
throughout
the war
\\'ith American unit!l.In
thc
foll
owing
sections.
o p e r a t i o n ~ 
of
the
ROYIII
Au
stralianAir
Force,
the
Royal NewZealand
Air Foree and the
Roynl
NetherlandsEast
Indies
Air
Forces
are
d i s c u s ~ e d . 
The
records
of
theChinese
Air
Foree lind
the
Chinese-American Composite
Wing
an>
includedintheUSSBS publication,
"Air
Operations
inChinn."lind
the
Briti
sh
Royal
Air Force
recordis included
in
the study.
"The War
inSouth
cast
Asin."Table
1
indicatell
till!
relatil'e
extenl
oftheoperations
of
eHeh
nil' force in
thePa
cificWill';ellch
contributed
to
the
f u n e ~ t 
extent
ofits
r e : " O u r C e ~ 
and capllbilities.
II.
Opera
tions
of
the
Ropl
AU5tralianAirForce
I.
Rur/(groulld.
[n
1939theRoyal
Austra
lian
AirForce
consisted
of
12
:<Quadronscom
mande<1
by
an
experiencedofficer
of
theBriti
shRoyal
Air
Foree.
Air
Marshal
Sir
Chllrleli
Burnett,
who hadbeen
1011
ned
lit
the
r e q u e . ~ t 
of theAustralian
gOI'ernment to modernize
and
IITOmOt
l'!
greater
emcienc)' in
the
force.
Thc
lotal personnel consisted
of
3
10
officers
and
3,179
"other
r a n k
~ . " 
After the outbreak
of
war with
German}"
Auslralin agreed
to ]»Irticipatc in
the
B r i t i ~ h 
Commonwealth
Air
TrlliningP
rogram
by IlTOviding
partly-trained
air
crews
for dillpatch to Canada. where
the
c
r e w ~ 
would complete
their
trRining.
The
firstbatchreache<1Cllnnda
in
September
1940
and
under all
agreement
of
J
anuary
19·11
Austrfl
lia'K
mouth!)'(Iuota
WRS
to
be
100pilots. 52
o b s e l " " e r ~ 
and
72
wircleS>l
ail'gunnllTS.In addition.
A u ~ t r ! l l i l l 
agrC(!d
to
!)lIild
up linorgllniza_lion intht' Dominion
cHIllible
of
IIcCl'pting
fOI"
RES
TIH
CTED

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